Memory

New Psychology Specification 2016

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Define capacity
The measure of how much can be held in memory. It is represented in term of bit of information such as number of digits
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Who completed the study into capacity of STM?
Miller ans Jacobs
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What did Jacobs find about capacity in the STM?
That the avergae span was 9.3 items and 7.3 letters
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What did Miller find out about the capacity in the STM?
7+/-2 items and increase if we chunk things together
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Why is STM more limited than previously thought? (AO3)
As researcher concluded that it is more likely that we can remember 4 chunks, suggesting the lower end of Millers scale is correct
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Why does the size of the chunk affect memory? (AO3)
As people have a shorter memory span for larger chunks than smaller chunks suggesting remembering smaller chunks
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How is STM affected by individual differences? (AO3)
Recall increases with age as 8 year olds can remember 6.6 digits but 19 year olds can remember 8.6. This suggests that capacity is affected by age as we are better able to chunk items
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Define duration
A measue of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available
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Who completed the study into the duration of the STM?
Peterson and Peterson
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What was the procedure used in Peterson and Peterson?
Gave participants a consonant syllable and a three digit number and asked them to repeat it after 3,6,9,12,15 and 18 seconds
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What are the findings from Peterson and Peterson?
90% were correct after 3 seconds, 20% after 9 and 2% after 18. This suggeasts that STM is very short if verbal rehearsal is prevented
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Who tested the duration in LTM?
Bahrick et al
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What is the procedure for Bahrick et al?
Tested 400 people on 50 photos from their old year books
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What are the findings from Bahrick et al?
Face recognition after 15 years was 90% accurate and 78% after 48 years. Free recall was 60% accurate after 15 years and 30% accurate after 48 years
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Why was the testing of STM artificial? (AO3)
The use of a consonant syllable doesn't reflect everyday life suggesting the study doesn't have reflect everyday life so lacks validity
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Why did counting number displace the syllable? (AO3)
Researchers used auditory tones instead and found the duration of STM was longer. This suggests is was due to displacement rather than forgetting
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Define coding
The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory
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How can information be stored in memory?
By visual coding, acoustic coding or semantic coding
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Who tested coding in STM and LTM?
Baddeley
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What was the procedure for Baddeley?
Used acoustically similar words but not semantically similar words and vice versa to test the effect on STM and LTM
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Which coding did Baddeley find for STM?
Coded acoustically
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Which coding did Baddeley find for LTM?
Coded semantically
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Why may have LTM may not have been tested in Baddeley? (AO3)
Because he only waited 20 minutes before asking them to repeat the words. Therefore it is questionnable to whether he tested LTM
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Why is the reliance of acoustic coding in STM not be true? (AO3)
Researchers found that participants also used visual coding when given a visual task suggesting STM coding may not be completely acoustic
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Why may LTM may not be exclusively semantic when storing? (AO3)
Researchers showed that long term recall was also relied on visual catergories. This suggests STM and LTM is not stored simply in one way
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Define the multi-store model (MSM) of memory
An explanation of memory based on three separate stores and how information is transferred between the stores
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Who developed the MSM?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
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What are the stages of MSM?
Sensory Register, Attention, Short Term Memory, Maintenance Rehersal, Long Term Memory and Retrieval
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What is the sensory register?
The place where information is held at each of the senses and the corresponding areas of the brain
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What is the capacity of the sensory register?
Has a large capacity as they are constantly receiving information, but most receives not attention so only remain for a brief duration
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What is attention?
If attention is focused on one of the sensory stores, then data is transferred to the STM. Attention is the first step to remembering information
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What is STM?
Information is held in the STM so it can be used for immediate tasks
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What is the capacity of STM?
7+/-2 so will disappear if not repeated
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What is maintenance rehearsal?
The repitition of information
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What is the duration and capacity of LTM?
2hrs to umlimited duration and an unlimited capacity
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What is retrieval?
The process of getting information from LTM involves the information passing back through the STM so it is available for use
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What controlled lab experiments provide information for the MSM? (AO3)
Evidence from brain scans have demonstrated the pre-frontal cortex is active when the STM is in use. This suggests the STM and LTM are single stores
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Which case supports MSM? (AO3)
HM personality and intelligent remained intact but couldn't form new long term memories suggesting the STM and LTM are sinlge stores
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Why does LTM involve more than maintenance rehearsal? (AO3)
Researchers have shown that their is deep and shallow processing in the LTM suggesting that deep processing leads to the formation of new LTMs
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Define the Working Model of Memory (WMM)
An explanation of the memory used when working on an immediate task
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Who was the WMM developed by?
Baddelely and Hitch
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Why was the WMM developed?
Developed as they believed in dual task performance in STM
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What does the WMM suggest?
That there is one store for visual processing and another store for sounds which are controlled by the central executive
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What are the parts of the WMM?
Central Executive, Phonological Loop, Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad and the Episodic Buffer
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What is the function of the central executive?
Monitors and cooridinated all mental function in the WMM, used to direct attention to a particular task and then allocate tasks to the slave systems
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What is the capacity of the central executive?
Limited capacity so can't attend to many things at once
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What is the function of the phonological loop?
Codes for speech sounds and deals with auditory information to perserve the order of information
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What does the phonological loop hold?
Words you hear like an inner ear
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What does the articulatory process do?
Used for words heard or seen and are repeated like an inner voice
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What is the function of the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
Codes for visual information in terms of separate objects including spatial tasks
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What is a visual cache?
Stores information about visual items
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What is a inner scribe?
Deals with spatial relations which stores the arrangement of objects in the visual field
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Why was the episodic buffer added?
When they realised the model needed an extra store
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What is the episodic buffer?
An extra storage system and sends information to the LTM
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What is the capacity of the episodic buffer?
Limited
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What is the evidence to support dual task performance? (AO3)
When given a task that occupies both the central executive and visuo-spatial sketchpad or the phonological loop the task was performed slower. This shows the central executive is a part of the WMM
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What evidence from brain damaged patients support the WMM? (AO3)
KF forgot auditory problems but had no problems with visual problems. This supports the ideas of sepearate stores
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Why is the central executive to vague? (AO3)
EVR had poor decision making skils but good reasoning skills suggesting the central executive was not whole suggesting the central executive is more complex
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What are the three types of long term memories?
Procedural, Semantic and Episodic
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Define episodic memories
Personal memories of events, such as what you did yesterday. This type of memory includes contextual and emotional details
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Define procedural memories
Memory for how to do things e.g. riding a bike. Such memories are automatic as a result of repeated practice
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Define semantic memories
Shared memories for facts and knowledge that can be concrete of abstract
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What are long term memories divided into?
Explict (semantic and episodic) and Implict (procedural)
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What is a episodic memory?
Personal memories of an event, include contextual and emotional details or the time and place can be recalled
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Give and example of an episodic memory.
First day of school
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What is a semantic memory?
Shared memories for facts and knowledge, can be realated to functions of objects or social behaviour
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How do episodic memories become semantic memories?
The memories lose their association with the event
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Give an example of a semantic memory.
Math knowledge
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What is a procedural memory?
Memories of how to perform a task, acquired through practice and repitition and attention to the sequence disrupts the sequence
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Give an example of a procedural memory.
Riding a bike
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What is the evidence for the different LTM? (AO3)
Brain scans have shown the hippocampus is active in episodic memories and the temporal lobe in semantic memories This supports the different types of memories
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What is the evidence to distinguish between procedural and declaritive memories? (AO3)
HM was able to learn to draw a picture but couldn't remember doing it. This suggests there are different stores in the LTM
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Why does the types of LTM have real world applications? (AO3)
Episodic memories could be used to improve mild cognitve impairment in older people. This highlights the benefits of making specific treatments
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Define interference
Forgetting becasue one memory blocks another causing one or both to be distorted or forgotten
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Define pro-active interference (PI)
Past learning interferes with current attempts to learn something
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Define retro-active interference (RI)
Current attempts to learn something interferes with past learning
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What is pro-acitve interference?
Older memories disrupting the recall of new memories and forgetting is greater when the memories are similar
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What was the procedure into pro-active interference?
Gave participant lists of words to remember
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What did researcher believe was going to happen? (PI)
When learning lists of words you don't remember words later on in the sequence compared to the words that you saw first
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What finding did the pro-active research find?
When given 10 or more lists recall after 24hrs was 20% but when only given one list recall was 70%
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What is retro-active interference?
Newer memories interfering with older memories
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What is the procedure into retro-active interference?
Gave participants a list on nonsense syllables to learn for 6 minutes and after an interval were asked to recall them
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What are the findings into retro-active interference?
Performance was worse if participants had been given an interveining act between initial learning and recall
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What is the procedure for the similarity of test materials?
Gave participants a list of 10 adjectives and after 10 minutes they were given a list with either words, nonsense syllables or numbers
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What are the findings into the similarity of test materials?
Correct recall with words was 12%, 28% with nonsense syllables and 37% with numbers
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What is the procedure for the real world study into interference?
Tested rugby players on the recall of team names they played
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What are the findings for the real world study into interference?
Found that player who played in all the games had the most interference
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Why is there issues into the research of interference? (AO3)
Because research was artificial as it used nonsense syllables so lacks ecological validity so cannot be generalised
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Why may interference be affected by individual differences? (AO3)
Those with a greater working memory were less suscetible to inteference when given 3 lists. Therefore a greater working memory can control the effects of interference
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Why is there questions into whether interference is temporary? (AO3)
Because memory was re-tested after 24hrs and recognition showed but not recall. This suggest interference occurs as memories are temporary rather than lost
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Define cues
Serve as a reminder and may be linked to meaningful information
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Define retrieval failure
Occurs due to an absence of cues and not being able to retrieve a memory that is there but not accessible
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Why do we lose information in the LTM?
It is available but not accessible, it was never stored in the first place or the memory trace has disappeared
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What does the encoding specificity principle say about memory?
Retrieval is most effective if the information that was present at encoding is also present at the time of retrieval
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What does the encoding specificity principle say about cues?
A cue doesn't have to be exactly right but the closer to the original item the more useful it is
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What did Tulving and Pearlstone do?
Used 48 words belonging to 12 categories and found free recall was 40% correct and cued recall was 60% correct
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What is the study into context-dependant forgetting?
Participants learnt words on land or in the water. Higher recall was found when the initial context matched the initial learning environment
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What is the study into state-dependant forgetting?
Volunteers learnt words either drunk or sober. Recall was higher in the initial learning state
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How can retrieval failure be used to improve situations? (AO3)
They showed that being in the same environment or just thinking about it increased recall showing a real world application
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Why do retrieval cues not always work? (AO3)
Because the information learnt may have more relation to complex association in memory rather than cues. This suggests context effects are eliminated when cues don't explain everything
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Why is there a problem with retrieval failure? (AO3)
It is impossible to test whether a memory has been encoded or not. This suggests it is impossible to test so cannot be proved
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What is eye witness testimonies?
The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime with a view to identify the person who committed the crime
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What stages does an eyewitness memory go through?
Encoding of the event, retaining information of the event and retrieving the memory of the event
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What is the study into eyewitness testimony?
Loftus and Palmer
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What is the procedure in Loftus and Palmer?
45 students were shown a video of a car accident and were asked how fast were they going to have collided? And did you see the broken glass? They used either smashed, collided, bumped or hit in the question
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What are the findings in Loftus and Palmer?
Participants with more violent words reported a faster speed and seeing the broken glass
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What is the research into conformity effect?
Participants watchded a video each with different items. They were paired and asked to discuss what they saw. 71% gave incorrect recall
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What is the research into repeat interviewing?
There is a possibilty every time an witness is interviewed the interviewer will become incorperated into the event or may use misleading infomation. E.g. Children
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Why is there considerable support for misleading information? (AO3)
When asking visitors at Disneyland whether they shock hands with Bugs Bunny they were more likely to report yes. This shows that it can create inaccurate memories
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Why do research suggest EWT is not unrealiable and inaccurate? (AO3)
Real life witnesses of a robbery gave accurate responses event with the use of misleading informaiton. This suggests misleading question are less influencial on real life witnesses
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Why may individual differences affect EWT? (AO3)
Younger subjects and elderly people had more difficulty remembering information. This suggests they become more prone to misleading information
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What is the key study for anxiety?
Johnson and Scott
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What was the procedure in Johnson and Scott?
Participants heard an arguement and either saw a man with a grease covered pen or a blood covered knife. They were later asked to identify the man
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What were the findings in Johnson and Scottt?
49% identified the man with a pen, 33% with the knife showing anxiety focuses attention on central features (weapon)
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Why does anxiety also have a positive effect?
High anxiety and arousal creates more enduring and accurate memories
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What happened in the real life study for anxiety?
58 witnesses to a bank robbery in Sweden had interviews 4-15 months later. They found 75% accurate memories and suggested that the more anxious witnesses had better recall
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Why could weapon focus be to do with suprise rather than anxiety? (AO3)
Because participants in hairdressor either saw a man with scissors, handgun, wallet or raw chicken. Identification was least accurate in the high suprise conditon
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What is the problem with case studies? (AO3)
They don't create real levels of anxiety which suggest real life events may be more accurate than lab events
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Why might there be more accuracy in violent crimes? (AO3)
Victims of violent crimes were more accurate than victims of non-violent crimes showing there is no simple rule about anxiety
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Define cognitive interviews
A technique which encourages them to recreate the original contents of the crime to increase the accessibilty of stored information
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What does the Standard Police Interview do?
Mainly focused on the interviewer, question are pre-determined and witnesses are discourage from adding in new information
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What are the stages of the cognitive interview (CI)?
Mental Reinstatement, Report Everything, Change the Order and Change the Perspective
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What is mental reinstatement?
Encourages the interviewee to mentally recreate both the physical and psychological environment of the accident making the memories more accessible
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What is report everything?
Encorages the witnesses to report every single detail
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What is change order?
May try alternative ways through the timeline of the incident
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What is change perspective?
The interviewee is asked to recall the incident from muliple perspectives to disrupt the effect that schemas have on recall
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What research supports the effectiveness of the CI? (AO3)
Meta analysis showed a 34% increase in accurate memories than the standard interview. This suggests the CI is more effective than the SI
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Why is the CI more effective due to some individual elements? (AO3)
A combination of report everything and mental reinstatement showed higher recall. Showinf that some elements improve EWT
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Why are there problems with CI? (AO3)
Because police officers require more training to conduct the CI therefore it is only used for serious crime
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Card 2

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Who completed the study into capacity of STM?

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Miller ans Jacobs

Card 3

Front

What did Jacobs find about capacity in the STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Miller find out about the capacity in the STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is STM more limited than previously thought? (AO3)

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