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What is Coding?
changing information so it can be stored
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What is Storage?
Holding information in the memory system
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Recovering information from storage
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What is retroactive interference?
When new information interferes with old information
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What is proactive interference?
When old information interferes with new information
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Who did research into interference?
Underwood & Postman (1960)
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What did Underwood & Postman (1960) do?
Divided PP into 2 groups, asked them to learn word pairs, Group A learnt list 1 and 2, Group B learnt list 1. Both groups were asked to recall list 1
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What did Underwood & Postman (1960) find?
Group B's recall of the first list was more accurate therefore new learning will cause people to recall previously learned information less accurately?
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What is Context dependant forgetting?
When you forget information because you are not in the same environment as you learned it
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In Godden and Baddeleys study where did the 4 groups learn and recall the words?
GROUP 1- Learned words underwater and asked to recall them underwater, GROUP 2- Learnt words underwater, asked to recall them on shore, GROUP 3- Learnt words on shore and asked to recall them on shore. GROUP 4: Learnt on shore, recall underwater
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What did Godden & Baddeley find?
Group 1 and 3 recalled 30% more words than Group 2 and 4
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What did Loftus and Palmer study?
Eye-witness testimony
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What 3 things can lead to inaccuracy of eye witness testimony?
Anxiety, leading questions, post event discussion
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Who are people with authoritarian personality more obedient towards?
People of perceived higher status
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What are the 3 types of LTM?
Episodic, Semantic Procedural
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What does the episodic memory do?
Remember events that have happened in your life or 'episodes'
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What does procedural memory do?
Remembers skills such as how to drive a car
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What does semantic memory do?
Remembers concepts such as different countries and continents
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What are the 4 techniques used in cognitive interviews?
Reinstate the context, report everything, changing order, changing perspective
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Name research into the effects of leading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony
Loftus & Palmer (1974) study changing verb in critical question was changed (smashed, collided, bumped, hit or contacted) “Did you see any broken glass?”
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What are the main components of the working memory model?
Central Executive, Phonological loop, Visuo-spacial sketchpad, Episodic Buffer
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What are the 3 components of the multi-store model?
Sensory register, STM, LTM
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What is the phonological loop split into?
Articulatory control system, Phonological store
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What did John Yuielle & Judith Cutshall do?
Positive effect of anxiety on EWT, real life shooting interviews
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What did Johnson & Scott do? (1976)
Negative effect of anxiety on EWT, over hear argument
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What is the weapon focus effect?
When witnesses of a crime focus on the weapon not on the details of the crime
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Who did research into coding?
Alan Baddeley
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What did he do?
Group 1: Acoustically similar Group 2:Acoustically Dissimilar Group 3:Semantically Similar Group 4:Semantically Dissimilar
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What did he conclude?
did worse with acoustically similar words in STM, did worse with semantically dissimilar words after 20 minutes, suggesting information is coded semantically in LTM
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What did Jacobs(1887) find out about capacity in the STM?
Mean digit span is 9.3 items, Mean digit span for letters was 7.3
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What did George Miller (1956) find out about the span of memory and chunking
Applied it to everyday life, remember things in 7's (7 days a week, 7 notes on music scale) STM is 7+/-2 items
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What did Peterson&Peterson (1959) find about the duration of the LTM?
The STM has a very short duration without rehearsal
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What did Barrack et al (1975) find about duration of LTM?
Yearbook pictures, Free Recall. LTM duration is very long even after 48 years.
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What does the sensory register do?
Stores for each of our senses
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What is the coding, capacity and duration of the sensory register?
Coded: Acoustically, Capacity: Large, Duration: Less than half a second
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What is the coding, capacity and duration of the STM?
Coded: Acoustically, Capacity: 7+/-2 items, Duration: Less than 30 seconds
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What is the coding, capacity and duration of the LTM?
Coded: Semantically, Capacity: Unlimited, Duration: Potentially permanent
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What are 3 evaluation points for the MSM?
Supporting research (Baddeley, 4 groups), There is more than one type of STM (KF), There is more than one type of rehearsal (Maintenance, Elaboritive)
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How does KF show that the STM isn't a unitary store?
KF has amnesia. Shallice&Warrington found STM was very poor when information was read to him but recall was much better when he could read the digits for himself.
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What clinical evidence is there for 3 types of LTM?
Clive Wearing and HM had great difficulty recalling what happened to them in the past but their semantic memories were relatively unaffected, stored in different parts of the brain
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Where are the episodic and semantic memories stored?
Prefrontal Cortex: Left- semantic memories, Right- episodic
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What is the evaluation point for this?
Neuroimaging evidence- validity
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What are the 3 evaluation points for the working memory model?
Clinical Evidence-KF could process visual info but not auditory, Dual Task Performance-difficulty doing 2 visual tasks but could do a visual and verbal task (Baddeley), Lack of clarity over the central executive
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What did Alan Baddeley say about the central executive.
'The central executive is the most important but least understood component of the WMM'
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Who came up with the theory of the MSM?
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968-1971)
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What are the 2 types of interference?
Retroactive, Proactive
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Who conducted research into the effects of similarity?
Mcgeoch and Mcdonald (1931)
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What did they do?
Group 1: Synonyms, Group 2: Antonyms, Group 3: Words unrelated to the original ones, Group 4: Nonsense syllables, Group 5: Three digit numbers, Group 6: No new list. Interferece is worse when memories are similar (SYNONYM GROUP)
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What is state dependent forgetting and who came up with it?
Carter and Cassaday (1998), the effect of anti-histamines on learning and recall
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What is Storage?


Holding information in the memory system

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What is retroactive interference?


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What is proactive interference?


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