Memory

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  • Created by: Chughesx
  • Created on: 10-02-16 12:45
What is memory?
the mental process involved in encoding, storing and retrieving information.
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Explain the three stages involved in the process of memory.
ENCODING; how info is processed. STORAGE; holding info in the memory system until it is needed. RETRIEVAL; accessing the info so it can be used.
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What is the proposed capacity of the STM?
Miller (1956) found that the STM has a limited capacity of 7+/-2 'chunks' of information. This is known as 'Millers digit span'. A chunk is any unit of information which could be a number, work or sentence.
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What did simon (1974) argue against the capacity of the STM?
He argued that the size of the chunk has an effect on how much info can be held in the STM, he found that it can hold 7 units if it's one word and then this reduces each time the chunk increases. This shows that the STM is much more complex.
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What is the capacity of the LTM?
The LTM is proposed to have unlimited capacity.
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What is coding, and how can it be coded?
Coding is how information is written in our memory. It is either coded as sounds (acoustically) or meaning (semantically)
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What did Baddely (1966) do to test coding?
used words that sounded similar but meant different things, and words that meant the same but sounded different, to test the effects of acoustic and semantic similarity in STM and LTM.
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What did Baddely find?
He found that participants have difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in LTM but not in STM, whereas semantically similar words were fine for the LTM but not for the STM, this shows that the STM =acoustically and LTM= semantically
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Evaluate Baddely's research.
In general, STM= acoustic encoding, LTM= smeantic encoding. There is evidence that suggests both stores show visual codes are used. Nelson and Rothbart (1972) found evidence of acoustic coding in LTM
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What did peterson and peterson (1959) research?
He researched the duration of the STM, he showed the ppts a trigram whih they had to repeat in the rightorder, with an interference task (counting back in multiples of 3), 90% recalled after 3 seconds, 10% after 18 seconds.
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What did Peterson&Peterson's research show?
This showed that information is forgotten after around 20 seconds, suggesting that STM has limited duration.
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Evaluate the validity of Petrson&Peterson's research.
Low external validity, the test was done in artificial conditions and has low ecological validity as we cant say the findings would be representative of real life, we are rarely asked to recall trigrams.
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what did Bahrick et Al (1975) research?
He researched the duration of LTM. He used 392 ppts aged 17-74 years of age. They had to recall high school classmates names, using free recall/photo's/matching picture to name.
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what did Bahrick et Al find?
90% accuracy was found for faces and names of people who had left school in the past 15 years, and 80% accuracy for names if they had left in the past 48 years.
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Evaluate the validity of Bahricks research.
The task is high in ecological validity as recalling names is something people will have to do in everyday life, looking at real life memories is representative of real life.
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Who produced the Multi Store Model of memory.
It was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968), it argues that memory is comprised of three separate unitary stores- Sensory Register, Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory.
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Outline the sensory register.
The sensory register receives information from the 5 senses, but some is lost. Holds info for a very brief period (1-2 secs), this goes to the STM if it is paid attention to.
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Outline the short term memory.
This is for events in the present or immediate past. Info from here will decay if not rehearsed, of if other info enters the STM. CODING; acoustic, DURATION; 18-30 secs, CAPACITY; 7+/-2 chunks.
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How does informationve from the STM to the LTM?
Information moves when it is rehearsed, to stay in the STM the rehearsal is called 'maintenance rehearsal' and then to move to the LTM, it is called 'elaborative rehearsal'.
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Outline the long term memory.
info in the LTM has been rehearsed and consolidated in the STM. CODING; semantic, DURATION lifetime, CAPACITY; unlimited.
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Explain one strength of the MSM.
LOTS OF RESEARCH EVIDENCE; Glazner and Cunitz (1966) provide good clear support for the MSM as they show that the STM<M are distinct, they proposed the Serial Position Curve, good recall for the first (primacy)- been rehearsed, and last (recency)
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Explain one limitation of the MSM
OVERSIMPLIFIED; it is too simplistic to explain the process of memory, as the STM is more likely to be more complex than just one store, as shown by the Working Memory Model. Many researchers say that the WMM provides a fuller explanation for memory.
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Explain a second limitation of the MSM
REHEARSAL; the MSM overestimates the importance of rehearsal as there are many types of memory are stored without the need for rehearsal, such as memories of high emotional significance, and also memories such as the contents of a book or a smell.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Explain the three stages involved in the process of memory.

Back

ENCODING; how info is processed. STORAGE; holding info in the memory system until it is needed. RETRIEVAL; accessing the info so it can be used.

Card 3

Front

What is the proposed capacity of the STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did simon (1974) argue against the capacity of the STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the capacity of the LTM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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