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what evidence is there of exposure of media influences of pro-social behaviour?
Greenburg analysed popular TV programmes and found an equivalent number of pro and anti social messages at any hour
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How does aquisition influence pro-social behaviour?
according to social learning theory, we learn by observation and imitation, as well as when it is acceptable. The consequence of the behaviour how likely we are to do it again. Pro-social behaviours are more likely to reinforce social norms.
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What does developmental factors suggest about how the media influence pro-social behaviours?
children who are younger are less influenced by the media than older children because many of the skills involved develop in later life
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What behavoural effects did Mares suggest that were acquired through television?
alturism, self control and positive interaction
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what evidence is there that alturism is acquired through the media?
Sprafkin showed that children who watched Lassie were more likely to help puppies in distress than when watching a neutral programme. Mares also concluded children behaved more altruistically than those who watched a neutral programme
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what evidence is there that self control is acquired through the media?
Mares found when exposed to a model demonstrating self control, children showed higher levels in own behaviour. Frederick and Stein found those who watched Mr Rogers neighbourhood showed more obedience + task persistence than those who watched batmam
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what evidence is there that positive interaction was acquired through the media?
in Fredrick and Stein's study they counted the amount of aggressive acts compared to the amount of postive acts and found those who watched pro-social TV behaved more positively towards each other.
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what research support is there that exposure to media influences pro-social behaviour?
Woodard studied us TV for pre-school and found 77% of TV had at least one pro-social lesson. One issue of this is that 4 of the most watched TV shows for under 17's contained any.
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what research support is there for the influence f acquisition of pro-social messages?
Mares and Woodard found they were most affected when shown exact tips of behaviour, this is because they are able to remember concrete instructions but not abstract. Although this means learning social norms is less common.
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what is an example of a real world application to this theory of media influence of pro-social message?
Walt disney produced a set of DVD's for babies but Zimmerman suggested it would lead to porer developmental outcomes. The American academy of pediatrics reccomended no TV under 2 years due to attention problems. This could be an ethical issue.
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what is an issue of effectiveness children learning pro-social acts?
Mares suggested children imitate pro-social acts with no generalisation but anti-social acts are generalised. This lacking of generalisation limits the overall effectiveness of pro-social messages.
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What is another issue in terms of effectiveness of media influencing pro-social behaviour?
Mares and Woodard found the mixing of pro-social acts lmites the effectivness of pro-social acts. They found those who watched mixed behaviour were more aggressive than those who watched anti-social only.
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what is an alternative theory for media influencing pro-social behaviours?
perental mediation has been found to effect the influence as a parent mediates as a co-viewer. E.g. BBC show 'watch with mother' Austin suggested it involves parent dicussing content, explaining disturbing parts and follow up concepts.
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What did RosenKoelter find about the effect of parental mediation?
children as young as 7 could understand complex moral messages from adult sitcoms.
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What did Rice find about the effect of parental mediation?
that it has been shown to effect the learning of messages from sesame street
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What is one example of parental mediation?
sesame stret used pro-social message to nurture pro-social norms for inner city kids. but high socioeconomic kids benifited most from it possibly because of parental mediation.
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What debate could be suggested for these thoeries?
Reductionistic as TV is not the only source of pro-social messages. E.g. Mares and Woodard argue other forms of media have prosocial message such as stories.
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what is one issue of parental mediation?
Valkerberg suggested only some forms of parental mediation are effective such as instructive.
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What did Huesman and Moise suggest were ways in which media violence might lead to aggression?
Justification, observation learning and cognitive priming
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How might justification lead to aggression?
violence on TV may justify violence + may provide moral guidelines of what is acceptable. Ability to judge needs social transmission. They watch to relieve guilt + justify violence. If violence is unpunished concern about consequences is reduced.
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how does observational learning lead to aggression?
they may observe model and imitate, especially if identifiable and they admire them. It may also inform about positive and negative consequences of violence. Will imitate if model achieves aim and if the violence seems real so they will try it out.
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what research support is there for observation learning and aggression?
Philips found 10 days aftera boxing match there was an increase in murder rates but not after superbowl.
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What does cognitive priming suggest about aggression?
the activation of aggressive feelings and thoughts. After watching violence they are primed to respond aggressively because a network of memories is achieved. Frequent viewing leads to storage of scripts of aggression that are retrieve later.
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what research support is there for observational learning?
Rak and Comstock did a meta-analysis and found a relationship between TV violence and imitation. This was most evidence in pre-school.
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What issue was there with Rak and Comstocks study?
The theory doesn't take into gender differences as the effect of males was higher than females.
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what research support is there for cognitive priming?
Josephson deliberatly angered Hockey players and then shown either a violent or non violent film including a walkie talkie. They behaved more violently if watched aggressive film and reff was holding walkie talkie. As aggressive memories activated.
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What research support was there for justification?
Liss and Reinhart looked at the A-team and found they justified the use of violence. Suggesting negative effects. it leads to an aura of moral justification which children can readily justify.
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what issues are there with research?
Bandura supports observational learning, but this suffers from demand characteristics e.g. Noble.
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What issues are there with research?
Gender differences. Research does not use representivie samples but then generalises to all viewers e.g. male students. This is hidden behind gender neutral terms when describing population. Research only looks at male on male violence on TV.
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what issues are there with research?
Contradictary evidence. E.g Belson interviewed 1500 boys + found least aggressive were ones that watched the most and least TV and the most aggressive were ones that watched moderate amounts. Also, Charltons St Helana study.
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What did experimental studies find about the effects of video games?
Anderson and Dill found pp's blasted their opponents for longer with white noise and rated themselves higher on the state hostility scale after playing wolfenstein 3D compared to those playing myst.
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what did longitudinal studies find about the effects of video games?
Anderson surveyed 430 children at 2 points in the year and those who had high exposure to video games (violent) became verbally and psychically abusive, less prosocial.
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What did meta-analysis find about the effects of video games?
Gentile and Anderson found newer games had more of an effect- could be because they are becoming more violent.
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What positive effects were found about video games?
Gee found sims showed better problem solving and creativity. Durkin looked at 16 year olds and found positive outcomes such as family, closeness, mental health, social engagement and friendships.
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What research support is there for the positive outcomes of games?
Holmes showed volenteers images of traumatic personal injury and 30 mins later he let them play on tetris for 10 minutes and some played pub quiz. The second him there was a wait for 4 hours. Found those who played tetris had fewer flashbacks
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what issues are there of this research?
methodological issues. Cannot meausre real life aggression directly and so do it in other ways that has no relation to real life aggression and cannot only measure short term effects. Longitudinal allow other influences which may lead to aggression.
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what issues are there of research?
Publication bias. May only publish results which fits with current research and cultural bias where there is an imposed etic.
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Issues?
Ethical issues e.g. gives support to aggression
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what issues are there of this research?
Anderson and Dills investigation included deception so low external validity .
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what is an alternative approach?
the bi-direction model by Gentile suggests although games may increase violence, it is just as likely that people who already possess personality traits which orientate towards aggression e.g. pricking violent games.
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What does Hovlands Hovland-yale model suggest about the persuasive effects of media?
effective persuasion could be achieved by focusing on who says what to who.
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What does the Hovland and yale model suggest about the source
attractive communicators are more persuassive (petty and cacioppo) such as Bono. Experts are also found to be more persuasive.
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What does the Hovland Yale model suggest about the message?
the message is more effective if there are not intending to persuade and if they create a moderate level of fear e.g. Patwain and Symmes looked at classroom fear and found if they had mastery approach- positive correlation. But if threatening not.
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What does the Hovland Yale model suggest about the audience?
they found high + low intelligence easily persuaded. Those with high intell looked at both sides of argument. Also, younger people are more susceptible. Martin found older had more understanding of persuasive content and didn't trust it.
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What research support is there that fear appeals?
Shown by australlian real life anti-drug campign whee as long as they didn't petrify, informed and gave moderate fear offered opperunities for positive attitude fear and 78% out of 13-24 year olds said it changed their attitudes.
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what is one issue with this model?
alot of resarch used students and arm personel. It is innapropraite to generalise to generaal population as it is untypical of general public.
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what is an issue with this model
gender bias. Research suggest women are more susceptible but Sustrink and McDavid suggested this happened because content was something men were more familiar with. Kerbenick suports this by finding men more susceptible with female content.
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What is one issue with this model?
there is contradictary evidence such as research that celebrities were not very effected e.g. Mahony and Monaghan found celeb endorsememnts were not convincing or believable or did not effect persuasion.
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What does the elaboration likelihood model suggest about persuasion of media
it suggests there are two routes to persuassion depending on whether they have a high need for cognition or not. The central route is effective when audience is motivated to look at quality and peripheral is effective when looking at peripheral facto
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Who and how did they apply the elaboration likelihood model?
Vidrine applied this to health campaigned and showed higher NC students were more influenced by fact based message and low NC effected by emotional message
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One RWA of this model?
Lin showed how internet marketeers can design appropriate promotional material.
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what is one issue with this model?
The peripheral route may only be temporary. When magic Johnson announced he was HIV positive at the time no uni students volunteers but help rate when to 83% but after 4 1/2 months it was back to normal.
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one explanation of different routes?
fish and Taylor suggested if context was not personally important they would choose the peripheral route.
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What does hard and soft sell products suggest about the persuassiveness of advertising?
hard sell are factual info and soft sell are using subtle + attractive techniques. Synder and Debono who found hard and soft sell had different effects. People high in self-monitoring preferred soft sell, those low in self monitoring preferred hard.
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what does product endorsement suggest about persuasiveness of advertising?
celebs are often used to endorse. Fowles estimated 20% of adverts used celebs. Giles suggested they provide a familiar face and reliable source (parasocial relationship) they are seen as a neutral source and rubber stamp claims.
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what does children's advertising suggest about persuasiveness of advertising
Martin in a meta-analysis found a strong link between understanding and age as older children trusted them less
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what does pester power show about the persuasiveness of advertising?
its a common belief that advertising makes children pester their parents for products. Pine and Nash tested this and fond a strong correlation between amount of TV watched and number of items on the christmas list.
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what research support is there for hard and soft sell products.
Okazaki found in meta-analysis testing if soft or hard sell were more effective int terms of attitude towards the product, hard sell effective because more believable but were irritating + direct but soft sell was associated with positive emotions.
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what issues are there with these theories?
Martin suggested contradictar evidence but finding celeb endorsements were not that efective and fellow students were more effective when buying a camera. Hume studied 5000 TV ads and concluded celeb endorsements did not increase persuassivness.
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what issues are there with these theories?
Evidence suggested in real life TV ads may not be effective e.ge Comstock and Sharrer fond 80% left room during ads when recorded they fast forwarded minimising impact. Giles suggested unlike cinema audiences have more options.
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What is an issue with these theories?
cultural differences in persuasiveness of kids adverts. Pine and Nash studied childrens gift requests in US and Sweden and in Sweden TV ads aimed at children is banned. Research suggest lack of direct adverts is the reason behind fewer pestering.
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what is an issue with this theory?
Gender bias. In ads men and women are more traditional roles of dominance when men are shown attempting untraditional roles they were seen as incompetent. Sharrer suggested they reinforce traditional roles and promote acceptance.
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issues with this theory?
methodological issues. Only the attitudes of products are looked at.
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what do social-psychological explanations suggest about parasocial relationships as a form of attraction of a celebrity?
this is when one individual is in love with someone but they do not know. This is appealing because they make no demands, and do not run risk of rejection and critism which might happen if the relationship was real.
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what research is there into what makes a parasocial relationship likely?
Schiappa carried out a meta-analysis and concluded if they found them attractive and similar to them and also important if they were seen as real and acted in a believable way. If believable they could compare how they would behave in similar events.
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what does the absoprtion addiction model suggest about attraction to a celebrity?
McCutten suggested most people do not go past admiring celebs because of their entertainment social value but it may become addictive and it may lead to dysfunctional behaviours to sustain parasocial relationship.
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what 3 levels did Maltby suggest in peoples attraction to celebrities?
Entertainment social-attracted to celeb due to ability to entertain + source of interaction + gossip, intense personal- there is intense, compulsive feelings. Borderline pathological-uncontrollable thoughts, behaviours. Believes they in relationship.
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what RWA are there of this theory of celebrity worship
Maltby found parasocial relationships influenced body image in female adolescents. Teen girls with parasocial realtionships with those who were slim and had good body image tended to have poor body image and predisposed to eating disorders.
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what benefits are there of parasocial relationships?
Schiappa- loneliness not a predictor of parasocial relationships + provide models of behaviour e.g. generosity and cultural values. Perse and Rubin looked at soap opre characters and benefit from repeated nature and reduce uncertainty of relationship
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what is an issue of this theory? (ethical issue + RWA)
AAM linked to mental health. Maltby used eysnck personality questionnaire + assessed worship and personality. Found extra-version was linked to entertainment s./neurotism is linked to intense personal. explains why level of worship linked to health
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what issues are there of this study?
link between attachment style + relationship. Some are more likely to form parasocial relationship. Cole and Leets found anxious ambivalent most likely and avoidance is least. Those in aa attachments use TV characters to satisfy unrealistic needs.
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what issues ar there with research?
social desirability. Most research on relationships is based on self-reports but Tsao argues manipulation of experiment may be more effective in finding the cause.
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what does the evolutionary explanation suggest about attraction to creative individuals
Miller-humans love novelty (neophillia) females look for creative displays by potential partners. Mate choice in EEA towards creative courtship displays and- explains why characteristics developed in humans e.g. art due to sexual selection.
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what does the evolutionary theory suggest about celebrity gossip?
exchange of info adapted from ancestors when started living in groups. Debaker suggests it creates bonds + serves a similar function to social grooming forming alliances, reputations (especially with rivals) + exchanging info about potential partner
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what did Barkow suggest about celebrity gossip?
suggest our minds are fooled into believing characters are part of our social group and triggers the same gossip mechanisms we have evolved.
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what research support is there for love of creativity?
Shirashi discovered and enzyme which correlated with novelty seeking tendencies. Genetic differences mean people produce different variants of maoa and resarchers found one form lead to higher scored of novelty seeking. Suggesting a genetic origin.
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what research is there for celebrity gossip?
Debaker surveyed more that 800 participants and they said gossip was useful in aquiring information. Media exposure was an indicator of interest in celebs. Debaker claims media exposure would lead to thoughts celebs were part of the group.
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what is one issue with this theory into attractiveness of celebs?
the theory tells us nothing of why females prefer creativity. this explanation suggests traits are simply 'attractive'. Does not provide adequate adaptive reason.
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how is celebrity worship measued?
most research uses the celebrity attitude scale. Which is a 17 item scale with low scored show individualistic behaviour and high scores showing over obsession.
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how common is celebrity worship?
Maltby found over 1/3 of sampled scored above midpoints of CAS subscales. In later study they found 372 people aged 18-47 15% were entertainment social, 5% were intense personal and less than 2% were borderline pathological.
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what developmental problems are there with celebrity worship?
Cheung and Yue did a telephone study of 833 of chinese teenagers that idol worhsip and found it was corelated with lower levels of work, study, self-esteem and less successful identity achievement.
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What did Maltby conclude about celebrity worship?
had lowest levels of psychological wellbeing e.g those who intense personal stage had significant levels of anxiety and depression. (from 30 uK adults) concluded that worship is behavioural representation of poor psychological well being.
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resarch support for celebrity worship
Cheung and Yue showed that there could be some benefits e.g found if worshipped someone with regular contact they had higher self-esteem, higher educational achievements.
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Research support for evolutionary explanation?
Gill suggested it is natural to look up individuals who received attention because they have succeeded in society.
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are there any negative implications?
Sheriden suggested often drawn to more negative social celebs who they may imitate.
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what is a stalker?
repeated attempts to pose unwanted contact
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what types of celebrity stalker are there?
those who develop a love obsession or fixation with celeb and these suffer from adverse though patterns + sometimes mental disorder and most cannot form real relationship. 2nd is simple stalking from relationship before.
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other types of stalking?
eorotomania- when a female stalks a man of higher status/ psychotic is an obsession with a celeb/ obsession is one with an ex- boyfriend. Many will act out stories they have planned out with celeb.
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what is parasocial bereavement?
grief felt by the death of celeb. Giles and Naylor analysed tributes left on website for Diana and Kill Dnado and showed the depth of a parasocial relationship that has formed.
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origins of celebrity stalking?
attachment style. Meloy found those with pre-occupied attachment style had poor self image and better ones of others. They overvalued others and believed contact with celebs will show they are valued and challenge negative views of self.
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what research support is there of negative effects of stalking?
German postal survey found 11.5% of pps had been stalked (mostly women) 56% where agitated 44% anxiety 41% had sleep problems and 25% had depression.
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what issues are there with this research?
difficult to detirmin what is stalking? Alexy looked at cyber bullying and gave a real life scenario but only 30% said it was bullying. (lack of validity)
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what other issues are there with this research?
despite legislation, many strategies used are basic rights of freedom so it is difficult to determine when fan behaviour is stalking.
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research support for attachment types?
Tonin looked at attachment types and stalking using self-report. Compared 2 groups of 24 both detained but one not because of stalking and a control of 33. Found stalkers had more insecure attachments.
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What real world applications are there of stalking?
roberts found those with pre-occupied attachment styles has a likelhood of approach behaivour. This enables us to draw a psychological profile of an unknown offender after stalking. Clinical interventions designed to overcome attachment difficulties.
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what is an issue with this study?
it depends on individual differecnes. For example, Maltby found because christians cannot worship anyone they used cas scores and religiousity scores and found higher religiosity meant lower tendency to worship celebs.
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How does aquisition influence pro-social behaviour?

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according to social learning theory, we learn by observation and imitation, as well as when it is acceptable. The consequence of the behaviour how likely we are to do it again. Pro-social behaviours are more likely to reinforce social norms.

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What does developmental factors suggest about how the media influence pro-social behaviours?

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What behavoural effects did Mares suggest that were acquired through television?

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what evidence is there that alturism is acquired through the media?

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