Media Law: Crimes - categories and definitions

  • Created by: Alasdaire
  • Created on: 07-02-23 14:48
Indictable-only offence
the most serious crime, punishable by the longest prison terms eg. murder, **** or robbery
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either-way offence
can be dealt with at a Crown Court or Magistrates' court

includes theft, sexual assault and assault causing grievous bodily harm
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Summary offence
minor offences such as, common assault, drunkenness and speeding

dealt with at a magistrates' court
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How is a crime defined?
there are two elements in most crimes:
1. an act which is potentially criminal
2. a guilty mind - a crime carried out, planned or attempted with guilty intention
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What is strict liability?
There is no defence to this crime:
if a motorist goes over the speed limit they will have committed a crime, no matter their reason
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Definition of crimes
a victim of theft may tell their friends they have been robbed.

A journalist who makes this colloquial error when reporting a court case will seem foolish and worse the error could lead to defamation action
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unlawful killing of another human with the intention to kill.

Indictable-only offence
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killing by an ulnawful act without the intention to kill.

Indictable-only offence
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corporate manslaughter
if a company's, police force's or government's activity caused someone's death.

Indictable-only offence
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killing of an infant under 12 months when a mother's mind is disturbed as a result of the birth.

Indictable-only offence
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assault, common assault, battery, assault by beating
these charges likely to be used in cases in which no, or only transient body injury is allegedly caused.

can be summary or either-way offence
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assault occasioning Actual Bodily Harm (ABH)
an assault which caused more than transient harm.

either-way offence
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wounding or inflicting Grievous Bodily Harm (GBH)
it must be proved the defendant intended or foresaw causing some harm. A GBH charge tends to be used, for example, if the harm includes broken bones, or led to disfigurement and/ or permanent disability.

either-way offence
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wounding 'with intent'/ inflicting Grievous Bodily Harm 'with intent'
the wounding or GBH is deemed to have been 'with intent' if there is intent to cause GBH or to resist 'lawful apprehension'

indictable-only offence
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victims must have anonymity.

Indictable-only offence
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dishonest appropriation of property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it. Theft is stealing, don't refer to this as robbery.

either-way offence
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theft by force (violence) or threat of force.

indictable-only offence
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dishonestly receiving goods, knowing or believing them to be stolen, or dishonestly helping in the retention, removal, disposal or sake of such goods

either-way offence
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entering a building as a trespasser and then:
- stealing or attempting to steal
- inflicting or intending to inflict GBH on anyone
- trespassing with intent to:
- steal
- inflict GBH
- to do unlawful damage

either-way in some case, indictable-only
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aggravated burglary
burglary while armed with a firearm. intimidation of a firearm or any other weapon

Indictable-only offence
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- dishonestly making a false representation (for example, using a credit card dishonestly or using a false identity to open a bank account
- dishonestly failing to disclose information when under a legal duty to disclose (eg. failure when applying for hea
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making unwarranted demand with menaces with a view to gain.

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taking a vehicle without authority
offenders take a vehicle and abandon it after use. Does not involve an intention to deprive the owner permanently so should not be described as theft.

Summary offence
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aggravated vehicle
when a vehicle is taken and someone is injured, or the vehicle or other property is damaged because of how it was driven

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driving under the influence of drink or drugs
driving a motor vehicle when the ability to do so is thus impaired

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driving with excess alcohol
when alcohol in someone's system exceeds the limit:
- 80 milligrammes per 100 millilitres of blood
- 35 microgrammes per 100 millimetres of breath
- 107 milligrammes per 100 millimetres of urine

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perverting the cause of justice
concealing evidence or giving false information to police

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knowingly giving false evidence after taking an oath as a witness to tell the truth in court, or in an affidavit, or to a tribunal

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wasting police time
a person knowingly making a false report that a crime has been committed or falsely claiming to have information material to an investigation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


either-way offence


can be dealt with at a Crown Court or Magistrates' court

includes theft, sexual assault and assault causing grievous bodily harm

Card 3


Summary offence


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How is a crime defined?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is strict liability?


Preview of the front of card 5
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