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Explain the effect prosocial media had on the acquisition of prosocial behaviours and norms. (AO1)
Prosocial acts are more likely to represent established social norms (e.g helping others). Such prosocial acts are likely to reinforce our social norms rather than contrast with them. Also means, that we are more likely to be rewarded for prosocial
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Parental mediation is when a parent watches a programme with their child. What does Austin (1993) suggest? (AO1)
Argued that effective mediation involves the parent discussing the programme with the child, explaining any ambiguous or disturbing material and following up the concepts presented in the programme.
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What does Rosenkoetter (1999) suggest about parental mediation? (AO1)
Suggested that with parental mediation, children as young as 7 were able to understand even complex moral messages contained in adult sitcoms.
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What did Rice et al (1990) suggest about parental mediation (AO2)
Parental mediation seems to enhance the learning effect of programmes, such as sesame street.
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Sesame street was created in 1969, with deliberately prosocial aims in mind (e.g increasing interracial harmony with mutli-coloured characters) however...(AO2)
Although it was aimed at inner city children,research suggests that it was children from higher socio-economic backgrounds who benefited from it as a result of parental mediation.
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What did McKenna and Ossoff (1998) suggest about parental mediation, when they investigated children aged 4-10? (AO2)
Asked them about moral messages of an episode of power rangers. They found that most knew there was a message buy only those 8+ could identify it. younger focused on fighting. parents help their child to 'unpack' what they have seen...
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However, Valkenberg et al (1999) suggested that only some forms of parental mediation would be effective in enhancing prosocial messages, explain (AO2)
Found that in 'social co-viewing' parents and children simply watch the programme & don't discuss.Only in conditions of instructive mediation which involves discussion and explanation will parental mediation be effective.
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Explain Sprafkin et al (1975) study of alturism and what Mares concluded (AO1)
Showed that young children who watched an episode of 'Lassie' where a child rescued a dog were more likely to help puppies in distress, than children who watched a neutral TV programme. Mares-prosocial content children to behave more alturistically
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1)What did Mares find? 2)What did Freidrich and Stein (1973) find?
1)That when exposed to a TV model demonstrating self control, children showed more self control in behaviour,2)found that 4 year old children who watched mister rodgers neighbourhood over 4 weeks showed more task persistence and obedience to rules.
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Explain what Freidrich and Stein found in relation to positive interaction (AO1)
Observers watched children at play,counting the number of aggressive acts, friendly behaviours, expressions of affection, etc.Those who had watched the prosocial programme behaved more positively towards each other than those who had seen the neutral
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What did Johnson and Ettema (1982) find when they conducted a large scale study involving several thousand 9-12 year old children? (AO1)
The children watched the TV series 'freestyle' (a programme designed to reduce sex role stereotypes)one a week for 13 weeks. there were moderate positive effects om studies which featured counter stereotypical themes with children becoming less stere
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Explain developmental differences in prosocial behaviour (AO1)
Developmental differences in the degree to which children of different ages are influenced by the prosocial content they view on TV.Younger children may be less affected by prosocial portrayals than older children.
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Explain Phillips (1983) study.(AO1)
Examined crime statistics for the 10 day period following televised heavyweight boxing contests and found a significant rise in the number of murders during the period. There was no such rise after televised superbowl contests.
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Explain cognitive priming (AO1)
This refers to the activation of aggressive thoughts and feelings and explains why children observe one kind of aggression on TV and commit another kind of aggressive act afterwards. The viewer is primed to respond aggressively bc network memories
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Explain desensitisation (AO1)
Media violence may stimulate aggressive behaviour by desensitising children to the effects of violence. The more televised violence a child watches, the more acceptable behaviour becomes for that child-may become less anxious about violence-normal
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What do Huesmann and Moise report concerning lowered physiological arousal? (AO1)
That boys who are heavy TV watchers show lower than average physiological arousal in response to new scenes of violence.The arousal stimulated by viewing violence is unpleasant at first but children who constantly watch become used to it and
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Explain justification of violent behaviour (AO1)
Violent behaviours on TV may provide a justification for a childs own violent behaviour or they may provide moral guidelines concerning what is acceptable and what is unacceptable-one of ways children infer standards of acceptable behaviour
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Explain Anderson and Dill's (2000) study of negative effects of video games (AO1)
Participants blasted their opponents with white noise for longer and rated themselves higher on the state hostility scale after playing Wolfenstein 3D (violent first shooter game) compared to those who played mist (slow paced puzzle game)
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Explain Anderson et als (2007) study of the negative effects of video games (AO1)
Surveyed 430 children aged between 7-9 at two points during the school year. Children who had high exposure to violent video games become more verbally and physically aggressive and less prosocial- rated by themselves,peers&teachers.
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What did Charles (2011) when he studied the Facebook habits of 200 undergraduate students in Scotland? (AO1)
A significant number (12%)experienced anxiety linked to their use of the social networking site. The majority who reported anxiety had significantly more friends than others. stress from deleting unwanted contacts, pressure to be funny&entertaining
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What did Greitemeyer and Osswald (2010) find when they studied individuals playing a prosocial, neutral and aggressive game? (AO1)
After playing games for 8 mins, participants saw the researcher accidentally knock off a cup of pencils-prosocial 67% helped, neutral 33% and aggressive 28%
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Explain the study at Cornell University concerning Facebook and self esteem (AO1)
Students were given 3 minutes to 1)use their facebook page 2)look at themselves in the mirror 3)do nothing. Those who used their facebook pages gave more positive feedback about themselves.
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Explain the source within the Hovland-Yale model (AO1)
One important source characteristic is the attractiveness of the communicator. Petty and Cacioppo (1986) showed that attractive communicators are more persuasive than less attractive communicators. e.g. Cheryl Cole
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Explain the message within the Hovland-Yale model (AO1)
Putwain and Symes (2011) investigated whether classroom fear appeals influenced examination performance among a sample of high school students.When fear appeals emphasised a mastery approach=positively related to exam performance
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Explain the audience within the Hovland-Yale model(AO1)
Younger people are more susceptible to persuasive messages than adults or the elderly.Children also appear to be more susceptible to the persuasive powers of advertising . Martin(1997)younger children didnt understand the persuasive intent of adverts
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Explain the central route to persuasion(AO1)
Audience motivated to think about the message itself. Lasting attitude change. Cacioppo and Petty (1982) suggest that some people enjoy analysing arguments(high need for cognition) and are more likely to focus on quality of arguments.
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Explain the peripheral route to persuasion (AO1)
Audience not motivated to think about the message.Focus of peripheral factors such as celebrity product endorsement.
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Explain Synder and DeBono's (1985) study of hard and soft selling techniques (AO1)
Hard and soft sell approaches had different effects on different types of people.People who scored highly on a test of self monitoring had more favourable attitudes to soft sell advertisements. People low in self monitoring preferred more hard sell
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Explain what O'Mahony and Meenaghan (1997) found about celebrity product endorsements (AO1)
In general celebrity product endorsements were not regarded overly convincing or believable, with perceived credibility and expertise of the endorser being the 2 source characteristics with the greatest influence on any consumer purchase intentions
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Explain Martin et als (2008) study on celebrity product endorsements (AO2)
Found that their student participants were more convinced by a fictional fellow student when buying a digital camera, than by one from a celebrity. They claimed that young people- make sure their product is fashionable among people like them.
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What did Hume (1992) find in a study of the persuasiveness of over 5,000 TV commercials (AO2)
Concluded that celebrity product endorsements did not significantly increase the persuasive communication of the advert.
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Explain Martins (1997) meta-analysis of children and advertising (AO1)
Found a strong positive correlation between age and understanding of persuasive intent. Older children could discriminate better between commercials and regular programming and better understood the persuasive intent of the commercials&trusted less
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Explain Pine and Nash's (2001) study on children's christmas gift requests in the US and Sweden (AO1)
In Sweden television ads aimed at under 12's is banned by law.They found significantly fewer gift requests among Swedish children than among US children. The researchers suggest this was because of the lack of advertising.
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Explain what Bushmann suggested (2007) (AO1)
Suggests that TV advertisements may be better remembered if there is a congruence between the programme content and the content of the ad. For example, people may be more likely to remember advertisements if they are embedded within programmes
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What is a parasocial relationship as suggested by Horton and Wohl (1965)? (AO1)
Is one in which an individual is attracted to another individual (usually a celebrity), but the target individual is usually unaware of the person who has created the relationship.
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Why do Ashe and McCutcheon (2001) suggest parasocial relationships form? (AO1)
Such relationships might be particularly appealing because they make few demands. Bc a fan does not usually have a 'real' relationship with a celebrity, they do not run the risk of criticism or rejection, as might be the case in a real relationship.
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Explain Schippa et als (2007) meta analysis of studies of parasocial relationships (AO1)
From this they concluded that parasocial relationships were most likely to form with television celebrities who were seen as attractive and similar in some way to the viewer. An important factor appeared to be that they were perceived as real.
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Briefly explain McCutcheon et al's (2002) absorption addiction model (AO1)
According to this model most people never go past admiring celebrities because of their entertainment or social value. However, motivational forces driving this absorption may eventually become addictive leading the person to more extreme behaviours
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Explain Giles and Maltby's (2006) 3 levels of the absorption addiction model (AO1)
Entertainment-social-perceived ability to entertain&to become a source of social interaction. Intense-personal-reflects intensive&compulsive feelings about the celebrity,Borderline-pathological-uncontrollable behaviours&fantasies about their celeb.
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1)What is neophilia? and 2)what did Miller (1998) suggest? (AO1)
1)Humans possess a love of novelty. 2)Mate choice in the EEA could well have favoured creative courtship displays, which would explain many of the characteristics that are universally developed in humans, such as music,art and humour.
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What did Miller (2000) argue? (AO1)
That although natural selection favours the developmental skills that enhance survival, sexual selection might favour minds prone to creativity and fantasy.Celebrities represent this world of fantasy so we are attracted to them because of their assoc
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What does DeBacker (2005) suggest about celebrity gossip? (AO1)
That gossip creates bonds within social groups and serves a similar adaptive function to social grooming by initiating and maintaining alliances.
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What does Barkow (1992) suggest about celebrity gossip (AO1)
That our minds are fooled into regarding media characters as being members of our social mechanisms that have evolved to keep up with the affairs of ingroup members.
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What is the celebrity attitude scale?(AO1)
Used to measure celebrity worship, It's a 17 item scale with the lower scores indicating more individualistic behaviour and higher scores indicating over identification and obsession with celebrities.
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What did Maltby et al (2003) find?(AO1)
That over one third of a combined sample of students and workers scored above the midpoints of the three sub-scales of the CAS.
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What did Maltby et al (2004) find? (AO1)
That in a sample of 372 people aged 18-47, 15% were at the entertainment social level, 5% at intense personal and less than 2% would be considered borderline pathological.
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In a telephone survey with 833 Chinese teenagers, what did Cheung and Yue (2003) find? (AO1)
That 'idol worship' was associated with lower levels of work or study and lower levels of self esteem and less successful identity achievement.Those teenagers who worshiped idols from TV demonstrated lowest levels of identity achievement.
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What do Maltby et al (2001) conclude about celebrity worship? (AO1)
Celebrity worship is a behavioural representation of poor psychological well being, which results from failed attempts to escape from or simply cope with the pressures of everyday life.
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Explain Walther (1996) hyperpersonal model (AO2)
This claims that self selection of information we choose to represent ourselves (e.g. photo's) can have a positive influence on self-esteem.Computer mediated communication offers people such an opportunity for positive self esteem.
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What do Greitemeyer and Osswald (2010) suggest about video games? (AO2)
That 85% of video games involve some kind of violence.Therefore, although the content of prosocial games can cause behavioural shifts in an alturistic direction, people who play video games are much less likely to experience this type of game.
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Explain D'Amato et al's (2010) case study of an 18 year old asthmatic man, who split up with his girlfriend (AO2)
She deleted him off her facebook. found that he became depressed and changed his facebook name in order to become friends with her again, but after logging on to the site and seeing her picture,his asthma worsened.could be a significant source stress
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In a study at Ohio state University, Kaprinski (2009) found? (AO2)
That the majority of students who used facebook everyday,underachieved by as much as a grade, compared to those who do not use the site. The report also found that facebook users spend between 1-5 hours pw studying, but non facebook users spend 11-15
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Kaprinski acknowledges that her study... (AO2)
Does not suggest that excessive facebook use directly caused lower grades, merely that there is a relationship between the 2. She suggests that other personality factors are likely to be involved and perhaps FB users are simply prone to distraction.
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What does Erfgen (2011) suggests that research on the persuasiveness of celebrity product endorsement has focused on the characteristics of the celebrity and less on the message of the ad, so argues.. (AO2)
That a celebrity might might be portrayed as endorsing a product in a number of different ways. For example, they may endorse it in an explicit mode (i endorse this product) or in a co-present mode (celebrity and product are depicted simultaneously)
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Research has shown that fear appeals can be persuasive if they do not petrify the audience and if they are informed on how to avoid the danger, this is supported by? (AO2)
A real life anti-drug campaign. In 2008 the Australian government launched phase 4 of a campaign to warn young people about meth.Although campaign is ongoing an earlier phase found that 78% of 13-24 year olds felt it changed how they felt about drugs
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Card 2


Parental mediation is when a parent watches a programme with their child. What does Austin (1993) suggest? (AO1)


Argued that effective mediation involves the parent discussing the programme with the child, explaining any ambiguous or disturbing material and following up the concepts presented in the programme.

Card 3


What does Rosenkoetter (1999) suggest about parental mediation? (AO1)


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did Rice et al (1990) suggest about parental mediation (AO2)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Sesame street was created in 1969, with deliberately prosocial aims in mind (e.g increasing interracial harmony with mutli-coloured characters) however...(AO2)


Preview of the front of card 5
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