Mass Transport

What are the 5 features of a Mass Transport system?
1.Medium to transport materials/2.closed system of tubes which branch to carry substances to all parts of the organism/3.mechanism for creating a pressure difference/4.mecahnism to keep movement in 1 direction/5.controls flow to suit changing needs
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of an open circulatory system?
adv-simple few organs. disadv-inefficient for diffusion
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What are the features of a open circulatory system?
Large open chamber, no tubes
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of a single closed circulatory system?
adv-simple,high pressure. disadv-less efficient for gas exchange
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What are the features of a single closed circulatory system?
Tubes,heart with 2 chambers
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What are the features of a double closed circulatory system?
Tubes, heart with 4 chambers
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Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of a double closed circulatory system?
adv-High and low pressure system. disadv-More tubes and effort
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What happens in diastole?
No muscles contract, blood travels from the atrium to ventricle, valves in veins, atrioventricular open. Semi lunar valves in arteries shut
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What happens in Ventricular Systole?
Ventricle muscles contract. Bllod travels to the arteries. Semilunar valves in arteries open. Atrioventricular valves shut
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What happens in atrial systole?
atrium muscles contract. Blood travels to the ventricle. Atrioventricular valves open. Valves in veins shut
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What are endothelium cells?
They are specialised epithelium cells that are found in blood vessels
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What characteristics do arteries have?
thick walls, elastic wall, muscle wall, high pressure, small lumen, no valves, blood flows away from heart
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What characteristics do veins have?
thinner walls, less elastic walls, muscle wall, not high pressure, large lumen size, valves are present, blood flows towards the heart
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What characteristics do capillaries have?
Walls 1 cell thick, no elastic wall, no muscle wall, not at high presuure, microscopic lumen size, no valves present,
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What are the characteristics of the arterioles?
Thick wall, elastic wall, muscle wall, not at high pressure, very small lumen size, no valves present, Takes blood away from the heart.
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What is an advantage of elastic tissue?
It stretches and recoils which evens out pressure.
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What is an advantage of muscle tissue?
For vasoconstriction it changes pressure
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What is an advantage of the epithelium?
It is smooth which reduces friction.
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What are arterioles?
They are the link between the arteries and the capillaries. They are smaller arteries that control blood flow from arteries to capillaries
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What are the 4 components of the blood?
Plasma/white blood cells/platelets/red blood cells
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What is plasma?
It is the liquid part of the blood which transports nutrients, hormones and proteins to the parts of the body that needs it
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What is the role of platelets?
Platelets are involved in blood clotting
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What is the role of tissue fluid?
Tissue fluid acts as a bridge in the diffusion of chemicals between the capillaries and the cells of tissues. It allows the diffusion of essential materials e.g. glucose, amino acids, oxygen
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How is tissue fluid formed?
Tissue fluid is formed from blood plasma moving out of the capillaries so diffusion can occur.
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Why does the fluids leave the capillaries at the arterial end?
Because the net filtration pressure of the blood is higher at the arterial end than the venous end.
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Why does the fluids reenter the capillaries at the venous end?
Because the net filtration pressure of the interstitual fluid is higher at the venous end than it is the arterial end
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How are root hairs efficient surfaces for the exchange of water and mineral ions?
1.they provide a large surface area as they are very long extensions and occur in thousands on each of the branches of a root. 2. They have a thin surface layer across which materials can move easily.
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What are the 2 ways water can continue it’s journey across the root?
The apoplastic pathway/the symplastic pathway
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What is cohesion?
The ability of molecules to stick to one another
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What is the formula for rate of water uptake?
rate of water uptake=speed of movement of air bubble x cross sectional area of capillary.
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What is translocation?
Translocation is the movement of nutrients around a plant
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Describe the mass flow hypothesis for the mechanism of translocation in plants?
Leaf sugars actively transported into phloem by companion cells. This lowers the water potential of sieve cell and water enters by osmosis. An increase in pressure causes mass movement. Sugars are used and converted in root for respiration forstorage
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How do plants reduce excess water loss?
Cuticle (waxy layer) on leaf which is impermeable to water/ Most stomata found on underside of leaf as it is cooler/ Thick leaves=reduced water loss/ Stomata may be sunken and found in pits/ Stomata closed at certain times of the day
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High blood pressure leads to an accumulation of tissue fluid. Explain how?
The high blood pressure means there is a high hydrostatic pressure. It increases outward pressure from arterial end of capillary so more tissue fluid is formed
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The water potential of the blood plasma is more negative at the venule end of the capillary than at the arterial end of the capillary. Explain why?
Water has left capillary; the proteins are too large to leave the capillary. This gives a higher concentration of blood proteins
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Describe how water is moved through a plant according to the cohesion-tension hypothesis?
Water evaporates from leaves. This reduces water potential in the cell. Then water is drawn out of the xylem. This creates a negative pressure tension. Cohesive forces between water molecules. Water pulled up as a column
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Use your knowledge of leaf structure to explain why less water is lost through the upper surface of leaves than is lost through the lower surface?
There is more stomata on the lower surface/ Thicker waxy cuticle on upper surface
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of an open circulatory system?

Back

adv-simple few organs. disadv-inefficient for diffusion

Card 3

Front

What are the features of a open circulatory system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of a single closed circulatory system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the features of a single closed circulatory system?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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