Lipids

Give a few uses for fatty acids
Buoyancy, insulation, membranes, metabolic control, food oils etc
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What is adipose?
A particular type of fatty acid in animal tissues used as an energy store, insulation and protection of organs
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Describe the structure of fatty acids
Hydrocarbon tail (Only H&C, non-polar), Carboxyl group/head (2 polar groups), 2 types of fatty acid, long tailed and short tailed
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Short hydrocarbon tail
2-5C molecules, volatile (easily evaporated), produced by microbes (fermentation), miscible in water, weak acids
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2C short tail FA
Acetic acid, CH3COOH
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3C STFA
Propionic acid, CH3CH2COOH
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4C STFA
Butyric acid, CH3(CH2)2 COOH
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5C STFA
Valeric acid, CH3 (CH2)3 COOH
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Long chain fatty acids
5C atoms (Naturally occurring LCFA only have even numbers of carbon atoms), 2 types saturated and unsaturated
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Saturated fatty acids
CH3(CH2)n COOH, the longer the tail the more interactions, increasing melting point as the chain gets longer
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Hexadecanoic acid
Palmitic acid, 16 carbon, 60.7C melting point
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Octadecanic acid
Stearic acid,. 18 carbon, 69.6C melting point
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Unsaturated fatty acids
Contain 1 or more C=C bond (Double carbon bond)
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What happens when fatty acids are reacted with alcohol?
Condensation reaction, forms esters
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What is the reverse reaction to reacting the fatty acids with alcohol?
Hydrolysis reaction
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What type of reaction happens when fatty acids are reacted with NaOH?
Saponification
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Hydrolysis
The breaking of a covalent bond with the addition of water, essential reaction before energy can be obtained, catalysed by lipase enzymes
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Saponification
Formation of soap by heating a triacylglycerol with an alkali
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Saponification value
How many mg of KOH is required to saponify 1g of oil or fat
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High saponification value
High proportion of shorter chain FA's
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Low saponification value
High proportion of longer chain FA's
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Iodination
Iodine reacts with the double bonds in unsaturated HC atoms
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High iodine number
High proportion of unsaturated FA's
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Low iodine number
High proportion of saturated FA's
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is adipose?

Back

A particular type of fatty acid in animal tissues used as an energy store, insulation and protection of organs

Card 3

Front

Describe the structure of fatty acids

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Short hydrocarbon tail

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

2C short tail FA

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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