Last minute Biology Unit 5 revision

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  • Created by: LZ95
  • Created on: 19-06-14 21:16
When a person is being genetically screened for a disease, how would you tell they have the disease?
The X-ray film used to distinguish fragments will be exposed as the radioactive probe is complementary to section of DNA of the patient
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What do introns contain?
Repetitive sequences of DNA called core sequences
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What has a unique pattern to each individual?
Number and length of core sequences
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What are the 5 stages of genetic fingerprinting?
Extraction, digestion, separation, hybridisation and development
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What happens in extraction?
DNA extracted from animal tissue e.g. hair root and is increased in quantity by PCR
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What happens during digestion?
DNA is cut into fragments using restriction endonucleases
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What happens in separation?
Fragments separated using gel electrophoresis and transferred from gel to nylon membrane by southern blotting
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What happens during hybridisation?
DNA probes bind with core sequences
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What happens during development?
X-ray film put under nylon membrane and radiation from probes exposes the film, revealing a series of bands
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How is this interpreted to see if it is from the same person?
Machine calculates length of fragments from bands and odds calculated of someone else having an identical fingerprint
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Name 3 features of the structure of RNA
Pentose sugar ribose, an organic base and a phosphate group
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Describe mRNA
Single helix, template for proteins, easily broken down, has codons
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Describe tRNA
Quite small, clover leaf structure, amino acid attached, contains anticodon
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How does transcription start
DNA helicase acts on specific region of DNA to break down hydrogen bonds
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When does transcription stop
When a stop codon is reached
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What happens in splicing
Introns are removed from pre-mRNA
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What happens in gene replacement
Defective gene replaced with healthy gene
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What happens in gene supplementation
One or more healthy genes added next to defective gene, dominant so masks effects
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What happens in gene line therapy
Defective gene is replaced/supplemented in fertilised egg
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What happens in somatic cell gene therapy
Affected tissues are targeted
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How are adenoviruses made harmless
A gene is interfered with in their replication
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How are the adenoviruses with the CFTR gene inserted into patients
Through the nose as a nasal spray
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How else can the CFTR gene be inserted into patients
By wrapping it in lipid molecules and spraying it into the nostril
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What can a DNA probe be used for
Locating where a particular gene is
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What does the autonomic nervous system control?
The involuntary (subconscious) activities of internal muscles and glands
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What does the sympathetic nervous system do
Stimulate effectors to speed up activity
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What does the parasympathetic nervous system do
Inhibits effectors to slow down activity
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What are changes to heart rate controlled by?
Medulla oblongata
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Where are chemoreceptors located?
Wall of the carotid arteries and the aorta
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do introns contain?

Back

Repetitive sequences of DNA called core sequences

Card 3

Front

What has a unique pattern to each individual?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the 5 stages of genetic fingerprinting?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens in extraction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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