Language Change

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Affixiation
The process of adding an affix before (prefix) or after (suffix) an existing word to chang either its meaning or gramattical function.
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Ameolioration
When a word develops a more positive meaning.
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Archaism
An old-fashioned word or phrase that isn't used in Present Day English e.g. forsooth
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Back-formation
In word formation, back-formation occurs when it looks like a suffix has been added to an existing base form to create a new word, but in fact the suffix has been removed to create a new term
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Blending
When parts of two words are combined to make a new one e.g. neitizen.
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Borrowing
When words from one language fall into the common usage in another as a result of contact.
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Broadening
When a word that has quite a specific meaning becomes more general over times (also called generalisation)
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Clipping
When a shortened version of a word becomes a word in its own right e.g. demo, phone.
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Coining
The general term for creating new words.
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Dialect levelling
A process of language contact where differencs between dialects in proximity to each other are gradually lost.
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Double-negative
When negatives are used twice in a phrase e.g. i didn't do nothing.
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Early Modern English
The language spoken in England from the late 15th century onwards when Caxton's printing press began the process of standaridsation.
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Estuary English
An accent that was originally from the Thames Estuary area in London but is now heard outside the area and may be replacing RP.
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Grapheme
The smallest uni of writing that can create contrasts in meaning e.g. individual letters or symbols.
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Inflection
An affix that is attatched to a base word and gives extra information about it e.g. its tense or person
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Late Modern English
The more standardised form of the English Language, spoken from around 1750 and heavily influenced by Johnson's dictionary.
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Marked term
A word that reveals a person's gender e.g. mistress, postman.
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Middle English
The language spoken in England from 1150 AD until the late 15th century.
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Neologisms
New words that enter a language.
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Old English
The earliest form of the English language, spoken in England from around 450 AD- 1150 AD.
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Omission
When sounds are left out from words. If a lot of speakers do this over a prolonged period of time, the sound can end up being lost from the word altogether.
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Othography
The writing system of a language - how the language is represented through symbols (letters) and spelling.
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Prefix
An affix that comes before the base form e.g. unfortunate.
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Punctus
A punctuation mark used in Early Modern English that functioned like a full stop.
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Standard English
A dialect of English considered 'correct' and 'normal' becuase it has distinctive and standardised features of spelling, vocabulary and syntax. It's the form of English usuallt used in formal writing.
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Standardisation
The process by which grammarians and presciptivists attempted to structure and influence English usage according to what constitued 'correct' and 'incorrect' usage of language.
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Suffix
An affix that comes after the base form e.g. sadness
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Vernacular
The commonly-spoken language of a country of region.
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World English
The international varietites of English and the English and non-native speakers uss to communicate with each other.
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Archai use of inflections
i.e goeth, veryeth, 3rd person inflection, 2nd person etc.
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Archaic lexis
Words that we don't use anymore i.e. walleryne, wexynge etc
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i/y used interchangably
i.e. sygth which originally meant sight etc.
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Virgule
Use of the virgule '/' instead of full stops, commars.
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Semantic Change
Several different terms for the same spelling "exed" "axyd"
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Additional E
E added on the end e.g. moche
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Conjunctions
Typically used to start sentences, knwon as fronted conjuctions.
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Middle English
11-50- 1450 AD
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Early Modern English
1450-1700
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Late modern English
1700-present.
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William Caxton
1476- The invention of the printing press helped standardise spelling but effect restricted because of limited level of literacy among populated.
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Johnson
1755- Compiled dictionary- foundation of modern dictionaires.
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Bishop Lowth
1762- Devised a grammar-set a tradition of concentrating on tracking down and eliminating errors in English usage.
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Oxford English Dictionary
1888-1933-
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Borrowing / loan words
Borrowing words from other cultures.
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Compounding
Combining two existing words.
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Deriviation
By adding prefixes and suffixes to words.
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Acronym
Words are derived from the initial word.
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Metaphor
When a word is based on an anology or likeness between things.
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Euphemism
Polite words that are used to describe hard words to discuss.
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Pejoration
When a word accquires a less positive meaning than it originally had.
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Weakening
When a word weakens it's meaning.
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Rhetorique
Language which is used to persuade or language which uses artificial expression.
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Vivid Lexis
To dramatise events e.g. by using adjectives, verbs, noun phrases etc.
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Inconsistency
Spellings that would change throughout i.e. Tuesday and then Teusday
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Capitalisation
Capitalising words mid-sentence, most likely nouns but other words too.
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Americanisms
Words loaned from America i.e. block, coffee cart.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When a word develops a more positive meaning.

Back

Ameolioration

Card 3

Front

An old-fashioned word or phrase that isn't used in Present Day English e.g. forsooth

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

In word formation, back-formation occurs when it looks like a suffix has been added to an existing base form to create a new word, but in fact the suffix has been removed to create a new term

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

When parts of two words are combined to make a new one e.g. neitizen.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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