LANGUAGE CHANGE

HideShow resource information
Standardisaton
making all variations of language conform to the standard language
1 of 43
Mixed-mode
features of printed text combined with features expected in conversation
2 of 43
Diachronic change
refers to the study of historical language change occurring over a span of time
3 of 43
Synchronic change
refers to an approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the historical context
4 of 43
Lexicon
the vocabulary of a language
5 of 43
Political correctness
words or phrases used to replace those that are deemed offensive
6 of 43
Overt prestige
Refers to the status speakers get from using the most official and standard form of a language. RP and Standard English are accepted as the most prestigious English accent and dialect
7 of 43
Received Pronunciation (RP)
the prestige of English pronunciation which is sometimes considered the 'accent' of Standard English
8 of 43
Covert prestige
refers to the status speakers who choose not to adopt a standard dialect get from a particular group within society
9 of 43
Borrowing / Loan-word
the introduction of a word from a language to another which can be anglicised or remain similar to the original in spelling and pronunciation
10 of 43
Eponym
the name of a person after whom something is named
11 of 43
Proprietary names
the name given to a product by one organisation becomes the commonly used name for the same product as a whole
12 of 43
Acronym
a lexicalised word made up form the initial letters of a phrase and is said as a word i.e. N.A.S.A and S.W.A.T
13 of 43
Initialism
a word made form initial letter where each letter is pronounced separately i.e. DVD and DNA
14 of 43
Clipping
a new word produced by the shortening of an existing one i.e. 'edit' from 'editor'
15 of 43
Affixiation
the addition of bound morphemes to an existing word
16 of 43
Prefixes
the addition of a bound morpheme to the beginning of a root word i.e. CO-pilot
17 of 43
Suffixes
the addition of a bound morpheme to the end of a root word i.e. laughING
18 of 43
Conversion
A word changes its word class without adding a suffix i.e. noun --> verb Google - to google
19 of 43
Compound
the combination of separate words to create a new word, sometimes using a hyphen to link them i.e. childlike and six-pack
20 of 43
Back formation
the removal of an imagined affix from an existing word i.e. editor becomes edit
21 of 43
Blending
two words fusing to make a new one i.e. smoke+fog = SMOG
22 of 43
Obsolete
a word that no longer has ANY use
23 of 43
Drift
A process of linguistic change over a period of time
24 of 43
Amelioraton
a word takes on a more positive meaning than it had previously which gains status for it i.e. PRETTY - used to mean sly -> now means attractive
25 of 43
Pejoration
A word takes on a more negative meaning than it had previously which loses its status i.e. CUNNING - used to mean learned -> now means deceitful
26 of 43
Weakening
a word loses the strength of its original meaning i.e. SOON - used to mean immediately -> now means in a short while
27 of 43
Narrowing
a word becomes more specific in its meaning i.e. WIFE - used to refer to any woman -> now means a married woman
28 of 43
Broadening
A word that keeps its original meaning but gains other definitions also i.e. DOG - used to be a specific breed -> now the hyponym for all breeds of dog
29 of 43
Euphemism
inoffensive word or phrase used to describe something unpleasant in a more considerate way i.e. died - passed away
30 of 43
Dysphemism
a derogatory term or phrase used in place of a more pleasant one i.e. 'a four foot box, a foot for every year'
31 of 43
Metaphor
a word a quires new meanings because it is used metaphorically
32 of 43
Idiom
a speech form or an expression that can't be understand literally from the meanings of the individual parts i.e. 'pull your socks up' --> try harder
33 of 43
Archaism
an old word or phrase no longer in general spoken or written use
34 of 43
Orthography
the way in which the words of a language are spelled
35 of 43
Dummy auxiliary
the verb 'do' which is used to form questions and negatives or to add emphasis in a statement i.e. 'I know not'
36 of 43
Influential power
power used to influence or persuade others
37 of 43
Instrumental power
power used to maintain and enforce authority
38 of 43
Omission
the leaving out of a phoneme in a group of phonemes clustered together
39 of 43
Assimilation
the influence exercised by one sound upon the articulation of another, so that the sounds become more alike
40 of 43
informalisation
the way in which language is becoming increasingly informal in all areas of society
41 of 43
Divergence
when a person's speech patterns become more individualised and less like those of the other person in the conversation
42 of 43
Eye dialect
a way of spelling words that suggest a regional or social way of talking
43 of 43

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

features of printed text combined with features expected in conversation

Back

Mixed-mode

Card 3

Front

refers to the study of historical language change occurring over a span of time

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

refers to an approach that studies language at a theoretical point in time without considering the historical context

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the vocabulary of a language

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Language variation and discourses resources »