LANGUAGE CHANGE

What is standardisation and when was it established?
The process of vernacular language to one with standardised variety to be identified with English as a national state - 18th century
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What is a standard language?
One which provides agreed norms of usage - defined in dictionaries and used in institutional purposes like education
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What happened during this change?
Many regional expressions were replaced by standardised ones
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What was an important contribution to standardisation?
The first English dictionary
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When and who was this written by?
1755 by Samuel Johnson
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What did this do?
Johnson's codification of language led to the idea that a standard language is something that individuals should strive towards
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What was another influence to standardisation?
Caxton and the printing press movement in 1476
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What did this do?
Through the printing press, spelling and grammar slowly became more standardised
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What effect did this have on regional variations?
Lessened as dialect words and expressions were being replaced by Standard English vocabulary
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What was published as a result?
Spelling and grammar books
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Who had access to these?
Higher social classes due to their high socio-economic status
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What assumption did this lead to?
Upper classes use standard English due to being able to access such resources and explaining why many RP speakers take a prescriptive approach towards language
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What does prescriptivism imply?
We must impose particular rules for language in order to maintain a specific standard form and to restrict the use of non-standard forms
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What does descriptivism imply?
Impossible to prevent language change. Non-standard forms are not seen as incorrect but alternative and feature of contemporary English
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What is another advancement that has contributed to language change?
Technology
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How has it affected language?
A variety of acronyms, abbreviations and neologisms have evolved in response to the advancement of technological mediated communication
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Give an example of technological language
"LOL" initialism and clipping of words such as "edit"
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What are they commonly used in?
Text messaging and online chatting, and are now commonly employed in colloquial speech
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What is another example of technological language?
Affixations - pre-fix 'e' indicates an online system i.e email, ebanking
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What has this change in language caused?
Net-speak has become a subject of controversy and is disfavoured by prescriptivists who promote orthography and standard grammar
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Who opposes this view?
David Crystal
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What did he suggest?
Change of language is merely an adaptation of the world's present views and interests.
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What theory does it relate to and explain?
It relates to the functional theory which states that language changes according to the needs of its users such as the changing worlds of technology and industry often fuel for new words
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What can we assume from technological language?
The creation of neologisms and irregular features of netspeak are not necessarily causing a deterioration in the nature of language
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What is another contributor to language change?
Global exposure of the media
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How has this altered language?
Through the growing popularity of films, TV and music in our culture
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Give an example of semantic change in youth culture
Adjective "sick" originally denoted to mean physically or mentally ill however it now means something good
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What is this an example of?
Amelioration
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What do these linguistic changes reflect?
Current society and the outlooks of its people, be it positively or negatively
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How else has global media affected language?
Influenced by American media, the lexis "like" has now become very flexible in terms of use - noun, verb, filler
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What is it becoming more often used in?
Dialects such as Northern, using it as a colloquial interjection "just be cool, like"
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What does John Simon suggest about this?
He opposes - states that English is beautiful & pristine and it must be preserved and protected
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What did Jean Aitchinson (1991) state?
Language is not 'crumbling' but rather maintaining itself
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What can we imply from media's influence on language change?
Can be seen as positive as it works to fulfil the need for identity and expression among users
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a standard language?

Back

One which provides agreed norms of usage - defined in dictionaries and used in institutional purposes like education

Card 3

Front

What happened during this change?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was an important contribution to standardisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When and who was this written by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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