Language Change

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  • Created by: ycrep2
  • Created on: 12-06-16 19:06
Pejoration and Amelioration (Semantic Shift)
Pejoration = over time, the word takes on more negative meanings. Amelioration = more positive meanings.
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Broadening and Narrowing (Semantic Shift)
Broadening = the word takes on more meanings than it originally had. Narrowing = loses some of the previous meanings.
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Labov's Theory A.K.A Martha's Vineyard Research
We subconsciously change our language to identify ourselves with one group rather than another.
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Mackinnon's Theory
The attitudes people have towards language use e.g incorrect or correct, pleasant or ugly, socially acceptable or not, morally acceptable or not, and useful or useless.
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Substratum Theory
Change through language contact. For example, in the past language would have changed due to trade and invasion. Now, language changes through social networking and immigration.
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Damp Spoon Theory
Language is changing due to laziness. Jean Aitcheson disputes this.
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"The Crumbling View"
Language is changing and needs to be preserved. Jean Aitcheson disputes this.
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Definition of Class Conversion
Changes word class without adding a suffix e.g. "inbox" (noun and verb); "text (noun and verb).
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Definition of Blending (Lexical Change)
Two words fusing to make a new one e.g. "Brexit".
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Affixation (Lexical Change)
Suffix = adding a morpheme to a root word e.g. "ing". Prefix = adding a morpheme to the beginning of a root word e.g. "post" or "pre".
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Acronyms (Lexical Change)
Creating a new word from the letters of an abbreviation e.g. "NASA", "YOLO".
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Compounds and Clipping (Lexical Change)
Compound = combining separate words to make a new word e.g. "Facetime". Clipping = shortening a word by removing one or more syllables e.g. "emo" (emotional).
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Foreign Borrowing
Words or rules taken from another language e.g. capitalisation of nouns from German.
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Coinage
Creating a new word e.g. Shakespeare.
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Convergence and Divergence
Convergence = conform to more dialectal lexis to fit in; divergence = to separate from others.
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In 1470, the ____ was invented?
Printing press.
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In 1755, what was published which would introduce standardisation?
Samuel Johnson's dictionary.
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In 1762, what was published by a man named Robert Lowth?
'Short Introduction to English Grammar'
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In 1870, England introduced what?
The Education Act
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(AS) Brown and Levinson
Positive face = desire to be liked. Negative face = desire to have freedom, not be imposed upon. Face threatening act = deliberately threatens the face of others.
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(AS) Fairclough
Synthetic personalisation = use of inclusive language to include all readers.
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(AS) Wareing's Power Types
Political = power in the law. Personal = a result of occupation. Social = part of a more powerful social group.
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(AS) Difference Theory
Men and women belong to different sub-cultures and are differently socialised. Men monitor interactions for aspects of power; women for intimacy.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Broadening = the word takes on more meanings than it originally had. Narrowing = loses some of the previous meanings.

Back

Broadening and Narrowing (Semantic Shift)

Card 3

Front

We subconsciously change our language to identify ourselves with one group rather than another.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The attitudes people have towards language use e.g incorrect or correct, pleasant or ugly, socially acceptable or not, morally acceptable or not, and useful or useless.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Change through language contact. For example, in the past language would have changed due to trade and invasion. Now, language changes through social networking and immigration.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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