# kinetics

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what's collision theory?
reaction won’t take place between two particles unless they collide in the right direction with enough energy
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what's activation energy?
minimum amount of energy particles need to react. Particles need this to break the bonds to start the reaction.
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what's the enthalpy change?
difference between the enthalpy of the reactants and the enthalpy of the products
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what makes a reaction exothermic?
If the products have a lower enthalpy than the reactants
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what makes a reaction endothermic?
If the products have a higher enthalpy than the reactants
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using collision theory, state what happens if you increase the temperature of a reaction
molecules have more kinetic energy and will move faster. More molecules have at least the activation energy and can react. Maxwell-boltzmann curve moves to the right
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using collision theory, state what happens if you increase the concentration of the solution
particles in solution will be closer together and can collide more often. More collisions equals more chances to react
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using collision thwory, state what happens if you increase the pressure of a reaction involving gases
more molecules in total to collide in a given volume. More molecules with energies above activation energy
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state 2 features of dynamic equilibrium
rate of forward reaction is same as rate of backwards reaction. Concentrations of reactions and products remain the same
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what does le chatelliers principle state?
when reaction conditions are changed at equilibrium, the position of equilibrium will shift to counteract this change
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what happens to the position of equilibrium when we change the concentration?
increasing conc of a reactant makes more product. Increasing conc of a product makes reverse reaction go faster
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what happens to the position of equilibrium when we change the pressure?
increasing pressure shifts equilibrium to side with fewer gas molecules. Decreasing pressure shifts equilibrium to side with more gas molecules
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what happens to the position of equilibrium when we change the temperature?
increasing temperature, equilibrium shifts in endothermic (+ive ∆H) direction. Decreasing temperature, equilibrium shifts in exothermic (-ive ∆H) direction.
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what's the equation for ethanol production?
C2H4(g) +H2O↔C2H5OH ∆H=-46kJmol
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what are the conditions for ethanol production?
pressure of 60-70atm, temp of 300o.Phosphoric acid catalyst
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how do you get a 95% overall yield if only 5% is converted each time?
gases pass through the catalyst. Unreacted ethene is separated from the liquid ethanol and recycled back into the reactor
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what's the equation for methanol production?
2H2(g)+CO(g)↔CH3OH ∆H=-90kJmol
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what are the conditions for methanol production?
pressure of 50-100atm, temp of 250o. catalyst mix of Cu, ZnO and aluminium oxide
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

what's activation energy?

#### Back

minimum amount of energy particles need to react. Particles need this to break the bonds to start the reaction.

### Card 3

#### Front

what's the enthalpy change?

### Card 4

#### Front

what makes a reaction exothermic?

### Card 5

#### Front

what makes a reaction endothermic?