Kaiser to Fuhrer Quiz Cards

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Which Chancellor unified Germany?
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In what year was Germany unified?
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Who was the first emperor of unified Germany and King of Prussia?
Wilhelm I
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What was Bismarck's main aim of the constitution?
Preserve the power of the Elite
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What were the two levels of govt directly below the Chancellor?
Bundesrat (Federal Council, Upper House) and Reichstag (lower house)
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Name the 6 political parties from 1890-1914?
Conservatives, Free Conservatives, National Liberals, Progressive Liberals, Centre Party, Social Democrat Party
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What was the SPD split into?
Right Wing- Revolutionists; Left Wing- Looking to gain reform through the political system
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Who supported Conservatives?
Junkers (Prussian Nobility) and land owners
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Who supported Free-Conservatives?
Commercial and industrial wealthy professional classes
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Who supported National Liberals?
Industrial middle class; protestant middle class
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Who supported Liberal Progressives?
Middle Classes
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Who supported Centre Party?
Catholics (South Germany)
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Who supported SPD?
Working Classes
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What do industries did Germany catch Britain up on from unification to war?
Coal and Iron
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What other industries did Germany rapidly develop in during the Second Reich?
Steel, Chemicals and Technology
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What was the name of the method used to manufacture steel and what did it use?
Thomas-Gilchrist 1879 (phosphoric ores- found in Lorraine)
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Which company used the Thomas-Gilchrist method?
Krupp (10 times more steel being produced than Britain)
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What two industries made the most of Steel production?
Armaments and Railways (Prussian Railway 5000km in 1878- 37,000km in 1914
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What stimulated development in Chemical industry?
Demand for explosives; demand from textile manufactures; investment into research (58000 employed compared to 9000 in britain)
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Which company in 1900 had a virtual world monopoly in artificial dyes?
Badische Anilin and Soda Fabrik
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What percentage of dyes did Britain import from Germany?
80%- Army uniforms worn by Brits at war, dyed with German ink
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By 1907 how many people were employed as electricity workers in Germany?
107,000- just under half employed by AEG and Siemens
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By WWI how much of europe's electrical business was being done by German businesses?
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What did the growth of industry cause for population?
A boom. And subsequently a change in structure of German society. Demographics changed as people migrated from rural to urban.
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What happened in Hamburg in 1892 in a 10 week period?
8,600 died due to cholera. Conditions were bad because over-crowding led to poor sanitary conditions, and also there was a lack of clean water.
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How was the Hamburg crisis of 1892 rectified?
A sewage system, clean water supply and waste incinerator were all put in place
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What happened to mortality rates due to better medicine and hygiene?
Rates dropped- diphtheria serum in 1890's cut young deaths due to disease in half
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What methods of travel were put in place to help people get into urban centres without having to live in the slums?
Trams and Trolley buses(1901) meant people could live healthier lives in urban suburbs and travel to work.
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What happened to wages in the urban workforce after 1896?
Wages increased- another indicator that living standards were increasing was that the amount of people being assessed on incomes lower than 900marks from 1896-1912 dropped from 75% to 52%
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Industrial workers doubled from 1882- 1907, what was bad about many of their lives?
over-crowding in insanitary conditions; homelessness
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What was put in place to try and ease the homeless situation in Berlin?
Berlin Homeless Shelter Association- accommodated for 200,000 men a year after 1900
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What happened to unemployment from 1882- 1907?
Unemployment rose from 1.35million to 3.45million- mainly from the working class
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What was the impact of the 1879 Tariff Law for agriculture?
Introduced to protect German farmers. Prussian Junkers benefitted due to high Rye prices. Peasants also protected as applied to barley, oats and wheat.
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How did the population boom impact agriculture?
Demand for more agricultural products- led to a growth in agricultural prices at the start of 20th Century.
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How did the development of chemicals impact agriculture?
Much better fertiliser was being developed meaning that farmers produced a higher yield in their crops
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How did the development of machinery impact agriculture?
German farming became more efficient and machinery made it less labour intensive.
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How did refrigerated ships affect German agriculture?
Meant it became cheaper to import meat from USA despite the travel and import charges
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How did migration impact agriculture?
Urbanisation as a draw to the cities where higher wages could be earned. Therefore, people were moving away from agriculture.
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How did landlords deal with the problem of lack of hands due to migration?
They hired foreign labour- nearly 500,000 by the eve of war, many being Poles
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Did the economic growth (cities growing, industry flourishing) lead to political reform?
No. Also there was an uneven spread of democracy. Economic growth was not even and between 1912-1914 prices were increasing as well as unemployment. This led to clashes between strikers and workers in the Ruhr
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What impact did the lack of political reform have for politics?
Explosion in participation of politics prior to WW1. The challenge for governing classes was to channel and control such pressure.
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Name three Nationalist Pressure Groups?
German Colonial League (1882), Pan German League (1890), Navy League (1898).
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What were the aims of the German Colonial League?
Acquire German colonies. The colonial league took control of South West Africa in 1884
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What were the aims of the Pan German League?
Acquire colonies; have German dominance in Europe. Strongly supported in the Reichstag with 60 members in 1914 (mainly National Liberals).
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What were the aims of the Navy League?
Promoted naval expansion? Very popular, had over 1 million members
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Name two economic pressure groups?
Central Association for German Industrialists (1886); Agrarian League (1893)
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How did the Central Association for German Industrialists make an impact?
They wanted to protect industrial interests. In 1912 they funded 120 Conservative and Liberal candidates in election at a cost of 1 million marks. Widely regarded as the most powerful pressure group
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What were the aims of the Agrarian League?
Protect agrarian interests. They pushed for protectionism and subsidies for agriculture. Led by Junkers- had widespread support from peasantry, 1/3 of a million members by 1914
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What three challenges did Chancellors face against the political establishment?
Aggressive foreign policy; demand for constitutional reform; demand for social reform
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When was von Bulow Foreign Minister, and when was he chancellor, of Germany?
Foreign Minister 1897-1900. Chancellor 1900-1909
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What was Flottenpolitik?
Build a navy the size of Britain's. This was needed to protect colonies and to be seen as a great power. Momentum maintain by Navy League
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What impact did the 1900 Navy Law have for steel production?
38 battleships to be made in 20 years- drove steel production up as it was needed
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What effects did the May 1906 Third Navy Law have?
Make 6 new battle cruisers; widen Kiel canal to allow passage of said ships to North Sea.
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Who was von Bulows interior minister?
Count Arthur von Pasadowsky
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What reforms did von Pasadowsky pass?
The Old Age and Invalidity Law, June 1899- increased old age pensions. New Tariff Law December 1902- impact of Agrarian League, higher import duty meant food prices went up. Backfired-1903 election SPD gain support, power shift to Centre Party
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What other domestic reforms did von Pasadowsky pass?
April 1903 Sickness Insurance Act- amended to give more workers provisions and for longer time, upto 26weeks from 13. 1908 law passed to limit work by children in factories- no U13's to be employed, 6hours for 13-14yr olds, 10 hours 14-16 yr olds
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What was von Bulow's idea of Weltpolitik?
Nationalist and colonial foreign policy. Successful foreign policy can help "reconcile, pacify, rally, unite".
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What problem did Weltpolitik face?
Few territories to take that weren't snapped up by other European powers. Caused tension between expansion and opportunity.
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How did the approval of 1899 Constantinople- Kania railway boost Weltpolitik?
It gave german leaders hope that one day they might achieve imperialist expansion in the east and middle east.
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What was the name of the broad alliance von Bulow relied upon to keep himself in a comfortable position?
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What caused a political crisis in Germany in 1906?
Herero uprising. January 1904 Hereros (indigineous to German South West Africa) rose in revolt against their repressors.
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In what battle were the Hereros defeated?
Battle of Waterberg Aug 1904
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What happened to Hereros after defeat?
They were subjected to genocide- execution, work camps, migration to desert. By 1911 just 15,000 remained from 80,000
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How did the Catholics feel of the Herero genocide?
Majority were outraged
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What did the repression highlight?
Lack of parliamentary accountability for colonial service and army. The need for great parliamentary financial control of colonial affairs.
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By December 1906 how much had dealing with the Herero uprising cost Germany?
456million MARKS
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What unlikely alliance was formed on 26th May 1906?
SPD and Centre Party join to vote against new raily way in africa, compensation for settlers and elevation of colonial department
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What was the result of the Centre and SPD parties allying?
Reichstag was dissolved
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How did von Bulow ensure there wouldn't be a Red-Black victory as a result of the Hottentot Election 1907?
He fought for Nationalism and threatened that a Red-Black victory would be terrible. Bulow succeeded in frightening voters into backing Bulow Bloc- convincing victory.
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What caused the collapse of the Bulow block?
Germany had a growing deficit which Bulow needed to sort out (some of which was owed to the Herero crises) Govt needed 380million marks. Property and Inheritance Tax proposed- Cons not happy and break from Bloc
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How did the Daily Telegraph Affair of 1908 lead to Bulow being axed?
October 1908 Kaiser interview with DT, saying he wants close relationship with Britain. Kaiser criticised for implying he has sole control over German foreign policy. Kaiser blamed Bulow for not censoring interview. Lack of confidence in Bulow.
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Who succeeded von Bulow as Chancellor?
Theobold Bethman-Hollweg
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Why did Hollweg try and reform Prussian voting system in 1910?
Unfair- Conservatives won 212 seats for 16% of the vote; SPD won 7 seats for 23% of the vote. Proposal dropped because of Conservative opposition
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How did Hollweg try and please the Conservatives?
Started the process of seizing Polish land in the east and redistributing to Conservatives
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Who was the largest party in the 1912 election?
SPD polled 4.25 million votes and gained 110 seats. Improvement partly due to alliance with progressive liberals.
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Why did the SPD back the 1913 Army Bill which proposed to have 136,000 new soldiers and would cost 1 billion marks?
They did not want to be perceived as unpatriotic and the money was to be raised by property tax (which wouldn't affect SPD voters)
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In 1911 how did Hollweg try and bring Alsace-Lorraine and Germany closer together?
Introduced a two chamber legislature , a flag, national anthem and some regional autonomy.
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What affair undermined all of Hollweg's good work for Alsace-Lorraine?
The Zabern Affair 1913
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In November 1913 which soldier sparked the start of the Zabern Affair?
Second Lieutenant von Forstner made derogatory remarks about locals which were printed in the press
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Upon von Forstner's return, he was jeered at. What happened to those who jeered?
von Reutner (von Forstner's senior officer) put many in prison, a state of siege descended on the town.
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How did the Kaiser react to the events?
He was unmoved, not worried and remained on a hunting trip throughout. Kaiser also did not take into account Karl von Wedel's (Al-Lor governor) account of events.
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The Kaiser also forbade Hollweg to inform the Reichstag, why did he do this?
He claimed it was a military affair
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On 3rd/4th December Hollweg faced a barrage of questions critical of Zabern, how did he react?
He chose to defend the army.
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What was the result of for Hollweg of defending the army?
He was given a vote of no confidence, 293 votes to 54 votes
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Following the affair were some SPD inspired protests, how were these dealt with?
They were diffused by repression
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What was done about the vote of no confidence?
Nothing- Hollweg ignored it, he only had to answer to the Kaiser, showing what a flawed constitution Germany had
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What happened to von Wedel?
He resigned. He was replaced by a far more reactionary, opposed to integration of Alsace-Lorraine region.
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What did the affair show of the 'balls' of other parties?
Political parties too timid- Scheidemann did call for Hollweg's resignation, but a full weak after the affair.
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Was there constitutional change from 1900-14?
Despite growth of SPD, no great move towards democratic change by 1914. On the eve of war Chancellor still acted independently of Reichstag, meaning their position was undermined.
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Why was there a lack of political modernisation?
constituency boundaries didn't change from 1871 despite population boom. Elections not based on popular vote, but where boundaries were drawn. No party wanted to challenge Kaiser, there was a big element of staying loyal to Kaiser (even for SPD).
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Why can we see parties as interest groups during this time?
Parties only looked after the groups they represented, there wasn't an appeal to the national electorate- making collaboration difficult (nobody trusted SPD; SPD didnt trust Nat Libs because they supported anti-Soc laws).
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Card 2


In what year was Germany unified?



Card 3


Who was the first emperor of unified Germany and King of Prussia?


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Card 4


What was Bismarck's main aim of the constitution?


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Card 5


What were the two levels of govt directly below the Chancellor?


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Charity Strong

This is great, question 86 was amusing. Really thorough resource, thanks!

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