Italy

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1859
Seizure of most of northern Italy by the Kingdom of Piedmont
1 of 75
1861
Seizure of southern and central Italy by the Kingdom of Piedmont, but with Rome remaining under control of the Pope & Kingdom of Italy first established & King of Piedmont became first King of Italy
2 of 75
1870
Rome seized by Italian troops. Unification of Italy completed
3 of 75
1881
Only 2% population could vote before this - 2 million more
4 of 75
1882
Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
5 of 75
1895
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) founded
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1896
Humiliating military defeat by Ethiopians
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1900
Umberto I killed after 2 other attempts - Victor Emmanuel III succeeded him
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1909
Catholics can run as ministers (couldn't vote before 1890s)
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September 1911 - October 1912
Conquest of Libya expanded Italian Empire in Africa
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1912
Universal Male suffrage
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1915
Italy joined First World War on the side of Britain and France
12 of 75
May 1915
Italy entered First World War
13 of 75
October 1917
Italian Defeat at Battle of Caporetto
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October 1918
Italian victory at Vittorio Veneto caused Austria to sue for peace
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March 1919
First Meeting of Fascist movement
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June 1919
Treaty of Versailles failed to award any German colonies to Italy
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September 1919
Treaty of St Germain with Austria & Seizure of Fiume by Nationalist Gabriele D'Annunzio
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November 1919
First post-war general election & Socialists became largest party and Liberals could no longer rule alone & Fascists failed to win a single seat
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September 1920
Occupation of the factories by 400,000 engineering workers
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November 1920
Fascist squad violence began
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May 1921
Fascists gained 35 seats in general election
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October 1921
National Fascist Party organisation created
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1922
Increasing Fascist violence
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July 1922
Abortive Socialist general strike
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27 October 1922
Fascists seized key buildings in northern cities, the first move in the planned 'March on Rome'
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28 October 1922
Resignation of last Liberal government
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29 October 1922
Mussolini invited to become Prime Minister in a coalition govt
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30 October 1922
Mussolini arrived in Rome. Fascists organised victory parade
29 of 75
November 1922
Parliament gave Mussolini right to rule by decree for a 12-month period
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December 1922
Creation of the Grand Council of Fascism strengthened Mussolini's control of Fascist movement
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1923
Pope withdrew support for the Catholic Popolari Party & Corfu incident used by Mussolini to promote Italian power and prestige
32 of 75
January 1923
Fascist squads converted into national militia
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July 1923
Parliament passed Acerbo Law, changing the electoral system to ensure that the most popular party was guaranteed a majority of MPs
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1924
Pact of Rome - Yugoslavia ceded Fiume to Italy
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April 1924
First general election under the Acerbo law gave Fascists a majority in parliament
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June 1924
Murder of Matteotti, a leading Socialist, by Fascist thugs created a crisis for Mussolini and led to the emergence of a dictatorship
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July 1924
Press censorship introduced
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1925
Last congress of Fascist Party: Mussolini banned internal arguments & Vidona Palace Pact outlawed independent trade unions & Start of Battle for Grain & Fascist Leisure Centre, Dopolavoro, set up & Locarno Treaties - M posed as major European statesm
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January 1925
Mussolini announced intention of creating a dictatorship
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December 1925
Opposition political parties and free trade unions banned
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1926
Parliament lost right to debate proposed laws or to criticise the government & opposition newspapers banned & Cult of personality underway & Abolition of right to strike & Ministry of Corporations set up - start of corporate state experiment & ONB
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1926
Treaty of Friendship increased Italian influence over Albania
43 of 75
January 1926
Mussolini gained the right to make laws without needing the approval of parliament
44 of 75
1927
Revaluation of the lira damaged Italian economy & launch of Battle for the Births, designed to increase Italian population
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1928
All appointments in Fascist Party made by Party headquarters in Rome, controlled by Mussolini
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1929
Lateran Agreements improved relations between Fascism and Catholic Church & start of global economic depression & Teachers forced to take oath of loyalty
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1931
Fascist Teachers' Association set up
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1933
Hitler became Chancellor of Germany
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1933-4
Conflict over Austria
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1935
Italian invasion of Ethiopia
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1936
Mussolini increased drive for economic autarky
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September 1936
Italian troops sent to Spain to aid 'Fascists' in civil war
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November 1936
Rome-Berlin Axis formed - Mussolini drew closer to Nazi Germany
54 of 75
1938
Anti-Jewish racial laws introduced
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1939
Parliament replaced by Chamber of Fasces and Corporations
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April 1939
Italian invasion of Albania
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May 1939
Pact of Steel with Germany committed Italy the Nazi side in a future European conflict
58 of 75
September 1939
Germany's invasion of Poland started WWII
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May 1940
German invasion of France
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June 1940
Italy entered the Second World War on the Nazi side
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September 1940
Italian invasion of Egypt
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October 1940
Italian invasion of Greece
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April 1941
Defeat of Italian forces in East Africa
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October 1942
Retreat of Axis forces from Egypt
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January 1943
Libya abandoned by Italian forces
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July 1943
Allied invasion of Sicily
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25 July 1943
Dismissal and arrest of Mussolini
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8 September 1943
Italy signed armistice with Allies
69 of 75
12 September 1943
Mussolini freed from prison by Germans
70 of 75
15 September 1943
Mussolini proclaimed new Fascist state - "Italian Social Republic"
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1943-5
Civil war in German-occupied northern Italy
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28 April 1945
Execution of Mussolini by Italian anti-Fascists
73 of 75
June 1945
First post-war government set up
74 of 75
November 1945
Christian Democrats began dominance of post-war Italian governments
75 of 75

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Seizure of southern and central Italy by the Kingdom of Piedmont, but with Rome remaining under control of the Pope & Kingdom of Italy first established & King of Piedmont became first King of Italy

Back

1861

Card 3

Front

Rome seized by Italian troops. Unification of Italy completed

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Only 2% population could vote before this - 2 million more

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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