Intro to Biology

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 09-02-16 12:44
Directions in the nervous system are normally described relate to the
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Difference between animals and humans
Animals= straight line/ humans right angle through brain to frontal lobe
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Ventral, Dorsal, Rostral, Caudal
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Lateral, Medial, Bilateral, Intrilateral, Contralateral
Away from middle/ towards middle/ on both sides/ on one side/ different on each side
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Frontal or Rostral/ Posterior or Caudal/ Dorsal/ Lateral/ Ventral
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Coronal/ Saggital/ Horizontal/ Cross section
Bread/ vertically down/ horizontally across/ slice taken at right angles to neuroaxis (transverse planes)
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Midsiggital plane
Plane through the neuroaxis perpendicular to the floor- divides brain into two symmetrical halves
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4 Principles for natural selection
Natural design for gene reproduction (involuntary, behaviours due to survival/ sexual success), Superabundance (produce more offspring than necessary), Natural variation (offspring all different, survival), Selection pressures (environmental factors)
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Mutate to become immune to antibiotics, no competition- fit selection pressures
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Came from
Africa- 5000 homosapiens
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Controversial theory
3 women
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Civilization started
500 generations ago
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Explain behaviour by
Context we evolved in
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Environment of evolutionary adaptiveness (EEA)
Behaviour universal in all cultures- ability to read emotion, avoid inbreeding, prefer healthier mates, cooperate
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Spandrels of large brain
Religion, reading, fine arts, money, war
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Genes that control size and complexity of brain
much more rapid evolution in humans than animals
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Upright posture limits size of birth canal, exceedingly immature birth
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Reptiles/ birds
Reptiles can fend for themselves at birth/ birds- limited resources in egg, immature birth, need parental care
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Extended youth- slow brain development- allow time for growth
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Young mammals guaranteed to be exposed to adult to learn
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Larger brain
Abundance of neuronal cells that can be modified with experience
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Some specialised circuits needed
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6 reasons we can compete with other animals
Bipedalism, mastery of fire, cooperation skills, agile hands, colour vision, can teach
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Round forehead
Developed frontal lobe
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Brain weight to body ration of humans
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Sperm whale/ shrew
8kg- only 0.02% body mass/ shrew- 3.3% mass index too small
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Clever people
Don't have bigger brains/ have plenty of nerve cells that are not committed to moving muscles or analysing sensory info
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Nerve cells for
Learning, remembering, reasoning, making plans
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Primate brains
More neurones/ gram than other animals
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Genetic changes
Genes slow down brain development
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At birth
brain 350g/ 100 billion neurones
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less neurones
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Development of neurones stop but
Brain still grows and new connections are made
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Neuronal cells
Gather and send info, send appropriate signals to effectors (muscle/glands), process info gathered (memory/ cognitive ability allow us to make voluntary actions)
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Cell membrane/ dendrites/ soma/ nucleus/ axon hillock/ axon/ synapse/ terminal buttons
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Sensory neurones
Pain- info from outside/ special receptors (light and sound)
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Send info to Interneurones
sends signal to muscle neurone- connect to muscle or gland
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Translates stimulus and is connected to neurone
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Cell membrane
5 nanometers thick/ phospholipid- hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tail
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Control centre- protein synthesis/ cell reproduction
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Endoplastic reticulum
Rough- processes proteins/ Smooth- synthesises fat and steroids
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Site of protein synthesis
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Golgi Apparatus
Modifies and packages proteins for export from cells- forms secretary vesticles
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Digest worn out mitochondria and cell debris- neurone can commit suicide- bursts lysosomes and digests seld
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Powerhouse of the cell
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Axon transport
Fast- 400mm/day- Anterograde and Retrograde/ Slow- 0.2-5mm/day- cytosolic and cylokeletal proteins only move in aterograde direction
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Fast anterograde
synaptic vesticles/ mitochondria/ elements of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
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Can travel backward to brain- Endosomes generated by endocytic activity/ mitochondria/ toxins (tetanus toxins)/ viruses (herpes, simplex, rabies, polio)
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Skine- virus trapped in endocytosis and uses axonal transport to get in
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Neurodegenerative diseases
ALS, Alziemers, Parkinsons- Axonal transport
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Card 2


Difference between animals and humans


Animals= straight line/ humans right angle through brain to frontal lobe

Card 3


Ventral, Dorsal, Rostral, Caudal


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Lateral, Medial, Bilateral, Intrilateral, Contralateral


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Frontal or Rostral/ Posterior or Caudal/ Dorsal/ Lateral/ Ventral


Preview of the front of card 5
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