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What is the main theory that interactionists use?
Labelling Theory
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Who thought of Moral Entrepreneurs?
Howard Becker
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What are moral entrepreneurs?
People who lead moral crusades to change the law, to try to make it beneficial to society as a whole. (Becker noticed that deviant behaviour for some, is okay for others. This made him wonder who creates laws.)
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Give an example of a moral entrepreneur.
1) Mary Whitehouse - launched a Clean Up TV campaign against sex and violence being shown on telly, as she believed violence on TV links to a violent society. 2) Bryan May - created the group Save Me, in protection of all animals against hunting.
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Who thought of police typifications / stereotypes?
Aaron Cicourel.
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What impact do typifications have on crime?
Police typifications see working-class as more likely to engage in criminal behaviour, therefore they patrol those areas more often. This results in there being more working-class people arrested, so the official statistics support this stereotype.
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Give 2 negative evaluative points of Cicourel's theory.
1) Does not explain why the police have these stereotypes in the first place. 2) Doesn't explain why deviance occurs.
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What was Edwin Lamert's theory?
Master Status
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What is primary deviance?
Rule-breaking. Primary deviance does not have bad consequences; most of them can be justified with things like "I was in a hurry". Primary deviants don't see themselves as deviant.
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What is secondary deviance?
Being labelled as a criminal can involve being stigmatised, shamed and humiliated. Once a person is labelled, society may come to see him/her only in terms of the label. Therefore, they reoffend.
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What is Master Status?
The person who is labelled as deviant, will develop a self-fulfilling prophecy; all their other qualities will become unimportant, & they become an outsider. This process is called master status.
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Give 3 negative evaluative points of Lamert's theory.
1) Deterministic - not all those who are labelled, reoffend. 2) Fails to explain why people commit primary deviance. 3) Gives the offender a 'victim status', and ignores the real victims of crime.
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What was Jock Young's study called?
The Drug Takers.
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Who was he studying?
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What is stage 1 of his findings?
The hippies use drugs as an unimportant part of their lifestyle,
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Stage 2 - what did the media do?
A common stereotype of drug-takers is established by the mass-media.
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Stage 3 - what did the police do?
The police share this common stereotype with hippies, and so they label them as deviant.
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Stage 4 - How did the hippies respond to this?
The hippies response to this was to retreat into a small isolated group.
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Stage 5 - What were the consequences of this?
It reinforced the police stereotype, so therefore lead to more prosecution of the hippies.
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Stage 6 - What were the consequences of the stereotypes being reinforced?
Police arrested more hippies on drug charges.
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Stage 7 - What difference had this made on the hippy culture?
Drug-taking becomes a central activity for the hippy culture.
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Stage 8 - How does this affect the police?
The drug-squad now become involved in further arrests of hippies for drug-taking.
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Stage 9 - what has been produced, due to the increase in arrests for drug-taking?
A fantasy wave.
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What did Jock Young's conclusion?
The CJS attempt to establish social control, however, this causes a deviance amplification spiral. This is because the hippies' self-concept changed, by the way the system treated them.
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Give 2 negative evaluation points of Labelling Theory as a whole.
1) Deterministic - implies that once someone is labelled, a deviant career is inevitable. 2) Unethical - Gives the offender a victim status, which ignores the real victims of crime.
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Who is the best
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Who is an ****
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Card 2


Who thought of Moral Entrepreneurs?


Howard Becker

Card 3


What are moral entrepreneurs?


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Card 4


Give an example of a moral entrepreneur.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who thought of police typifications / stereotypes?


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