Infection prevention and control

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What is the chain of infection?
pathogenic organism--> recevoir--> exit--> transmission--> entry--> susceptible host--> pathogenic organism
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What activities have been undertaken to break the chain of infection?
1) eliminate pathogenic organism 2)remove source/resevoir 3) minimise transmission 4) eliminate exit+entry 5) reduce susceptibility to infection
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What is done to eliminate pathogenic organism?
1)environmental cleaning+decontamination 2)equipment decontamination 3)antisepsis 4)antibiotic prophylaxis
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How is removal of source/resevoir done?
1) hand hygiene 2) environmental cleaning+ decontamination
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How is transmission minimised?
1) hand hygiene 2) personal protective equipment (PPE) 3) equipment decontamination 4) source and protective isolation 5) use of disposable equipment
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What is resident bacteria?
deep seated, difficult to remove-Resident bacteria aid in protecting colonisation with other harmful species. Only removed when undertaking a surgical/ aseptic procedure (reducing the risk of contamination when inserting invasive devices/surgery)
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What are transient bacteria?
easily picked up, easily removed- major cause of HCAIs as they are so readily picked up from colonised patients/ contaminated environment.
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What are the 5 moments of hand hygiene at point of care?
1) before patient contact 2)before aseptic task 3) after body fluid exposure risk 4) after patient contact 5) after contact with patient surroundings
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When is soap and water used?
For visibly soiled hands Contact with particular infections e.g. C. difficile, viral gastro-enteritis
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When is alcohol gel used?
For most of the activities you are likely to undertake on visiting clinical areas
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What is the definition of sterilisation?
Complete killing/removal or all types of microorgamisms-The process of making something free from bacteria or other living microorganisms.
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What is the definition of disinfection?
Removal or destruction of sufficient numbers of potentially harmful micro-organisms to make an item safe to use
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What is the definition of antisepsis?
is disinfection applied to damaged skin or living tissues-The practice of using antiseptics to eliminate the microorganisms that cause disease.
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What is the definition of decontamination?
combination of processes that removes or destroys contamination so that infectious agents or other contaminants cannot reach a susceptible site in sufficient quantities to initiate infection, or other harmful response.
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List sterilisation methods (4)
1)Heat Moist, dry 2)Chemical Gas, liquid 3)Filtration 4)Ionising radiation Used for single use disposable equipment
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Outline sterilisation by heat
1)Moist heat- Autoclave Delivery of steam under high pressure Specific pressure and temperature cycles 2)Dry heat- Oven Controlled temperature cycles 160C for 2 hrs or 170 C for 1 hr
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What properties need to be considered with disinfection?
1) effect on micro-organism(antimicrobial spectrum/sporicidality) 2) chemical properties 3) physical effects 4) harmful effects
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How do you decide which method to use for infection control?
1) risk of infection 2) physical properties 3) decontamination level 4) heat less hazardous and should be used where possible 5) chemical disinfection limited
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When do you use sterilisation?
Items/devices that will enter sterile body areas or break the skin
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When do you use disinfection?
Items/devices that will contact mucous membranes or that will be contaminated with body fluids
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When do you use clean?
Items/devices that only contact intact skin (no body fluids)
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Describe sterilisation
destroys all micro-organisms including spores. Heat by autoclave is the preferred method. Items must be thoroughly cleaned first. All re-usable surgical instruments must be decontaminated by this method.
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Describe disinfection
reduces micro-organisms to a level at which they are not harmful. The two main methods are: Heat disinfection e.g. dishwasher, bed pan washer; 2. Chemical disinfection e.g. endoscope washer/disinfector, chlorine-releasing
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Describe cleaning
removal of dirt/dust/organic matter using water and detergent. About 80% of micro-organisms removed- drying is an important part. Suitable for any item in contact with skin- essential first step of decontamination
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How are surgical instruments decontaminated?
Decontamination level-Sterilisation Decontamination method- Moist heat
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How are flexible endoscopes decontaminated?
Decontamination level -“High level” disinfection Decontamination method- Chemical Several alternative agents Delivered via “washer-disinfector”
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How are syringe needles decontaminated?
Decontamination level- Sterilisation Decontamination method- γ-irradiation pre-use Disposal after use
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How are central venous catheter (CVC) insertion site decontaminated?
Decontamination level- Disinfection (antisepsis) Decontamination method- Chemical 2% chlorhexidine in 70% isopropyl alcohol1
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How are surgeons hands decontaminated?
Decontamination level- Washing Decontamination method- Surgical scrub
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What activities have been undertaken to break the chain of infection?

Back

1) eliminate pathogenic organism 2)remove source/resevoir 3) minimise transmission 4) eliminate exit+entry 5) reduce susceptibility to infection

Card 3

Front

What is done to eliminate pathogenic organism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is removal of source/resevoir done?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How is transmission minimised?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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