Infection & Response

Define the term 'communicable disease'.
A disease that can be spread from one organism to another
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Name the four types of pathogen that can cause communicable diseases.
Virus, bacteria, fungi and protists
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Give an example of a disease caused by a fungus.
Athlete's foot, ringworm
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Give an example of a disease caused by a protist.
Malaria
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What does HIV/AIDS stand for?
Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency virus
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Name the scientist who first discovered antibiotics.
Alexander Fleming
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Name the microorganisms upon which antibiotics don't work.
Viruses
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Explain the difference between antibiotics and antiseptics.
Antibiotics are drugs that are taken to kill bacteria or fnugal diseases, and antiseptics are substances applied to the skin or other external surfaces to diistroy pathogens
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Explain why medicines are often expensive.
Drug companies are companies and need to make money but also the process of drug testing is long and expesive
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Describe how to make a streak plate.
Sterilise an inoculating loof in a flame or alchol. Dip the loop into the culture. Open a sterile agar plate. Gently spread the loop across the plate in parallel lines. Turn the plate through 90 and repeat. Turn the plate through 90 and repeat again
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Describe the structure of a virus.
A strand of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat
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How is salmonella often transmitted?
In uncoked food
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What are the symptoms of gonorrhoea?
A painful burning sensation when uriating and the production of a thick yellow of green fluid (discharge)
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How is athlete's foot treated?
By keeping feet dry and applying an antifungal cream or spray
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What are the symptoms of malaria?
A fever, tiredness, vomiting and headaches
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Describe how the transmission of malaria is reduced.
By using mosquito nets and insect repellent sprays containing insecticides and medicines such as Malarone
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Describe how stomach acid acts in the first line of defence.
It containes hydrochloric acid, which kills many bacterial pathogens
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Explain how your immune system helps you 'remember' your previous infections.
The T and B cells form 'memory' cells, B cells produce larger numbers of antibodies more quickly on subsequent infection
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Describe what a vaccine is.
A vaccine is a medicine containing an antigen from a pathogen that triggers a low level immune response so that subsequent infection by that pathogen is dealt with more effectively
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Explain the idea of herd immunity.
If the vast majority of people in a population has a vaccination, then even if a small number of people become infected the disease is not likely to spread through the population
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Explain the purpose of booster injections.
Booster injections 'remind' your immune system and refresh the memory of your 'memory' lymphocytes
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Describe how antibiotics were first discovered.
One of Fleming's petri dishes was left open and had been ontanimated by Penicillium notatum. This fungus grew where Staphhylococcus becteria did not. Flemming realised the fungas was producing chemical which killed bacteria and used this as the drug
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Describe how cilia and goblet cells prevent infection.
Cilia are tiny hair like projections in the airway. Goblet cells produce mucus which is pumped into the airway in which pathogens get stuck. The cilia then wakt the mucus back up the airway to the throat where it is swallowed
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Describe how phagocytes prevent infection.
They engulf pathogens and destroy them using enzymes
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Describe how lymphocytes prevent infection.
They produce antibodies, which help clump the pathogens together
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What is the first step in drug development?
Computer modelling
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Define the term 'efficacy'.
How effectve a drug is
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Explain what a double blind trial is.
A trial in which neither the doctor nor the patient know who has recieved the drug and who has recieved the placebo
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Name the four types of pathogen that can cause communicable diseases.

Back

Virus, bacteria, fungi and protists

Card 3

Front

Give an example of a disease caused by a fungus.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give an example of a disease caused by a protist.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does HIV/AIDS stand for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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