ICT

HideShow resource information
What Is ICT?
ICT is the use of technology for the input (1), storage (1), processing (1) of data and the output of information. (1)
1 of 80
What Is A ICT System?
An ICT system is one that involves input (1), processing (1) and output (1) which goes directly to a human being (1) An ICT system consists of data (1), information (1), software (1) and hardware (1)
2 of 80
What Are The Components Of An ICT System?
Data, Hardware, People, Procedures, Software, Information.
3 of 80
What Are The Different Forms Data Can Take?
Moving images, text, sound, Numbers, Pictures/still images.
4 of 80
What Is Data?
Data just raw facts or figures which have no meaning. (1) An example of this would be the barcode on a product. (1)
5 of 80
How Can Data Arise?
Data can arise from a transaction (1) when you withdraw money from a bank account (1) or book a seat on a plane. (1) Data can arise from a questionnaire such as a shopping survey. (1) Data can arise from making a purchase. (1) Phishing (1).
6 of 80
Reasons For Coded Data?
Data is coded so that it saves time on manual data capture. (1) Another reason is that search times are reduced (1) and it will also take up less storage space. (1) It is easier to validate coded data. (1)
7 of 80
What Are The Factors That Affect The Quality Of Information?
How up-to-date the information is, How accurate the information is, How relevant the information.
8 of 80
What Is Encoded Data?
Data is encoded when it is entered to convert it into a form that the system/computer understands (so that it can be processed effectively.) (1)
9 of 80
What Is A Menu Driven Interface?
A menu driven interface provides a choice of options that could display a list of the services provided which would help less experienced users.
10 of 80
What Is A Graphical User Interface?
Graphical user interface – could be used for a touch screen. Customised desktop using a GUI. Windows allow you quickly switch between different applications. GUIs contain windows, icons, menus and pointers (1) Menus show the selections available (1)
11 of 80
What Are The Characteristics Of Users?
Physical characteristics, Experience, Environment, Task to be undertaken, Age.
12 of 80
What Are Personal Qualities?
Personal qualities - exceptional problem solving skills(1) in order to be able to provide a fast, effective solution to new problems (1) or to recognise when it needs to be referred to someone with more expertise. (1)
13 of 80
What Are Personal Qualities? Part 2
Good oral communication skills (1) because she would have to be able to explain solutions to novice users. (1) A good listener. (1) Strong documentation skills (1) because she would have to write up clear solutions.
14 of 80
What Is An Effective ICT Team?
One characteristic is the appropriate allocation of a team member to a task (1) to utilise the strengths of team member (1) e.g. send a networking specialist to solve a problem relating to a network server. (1)
15 of 80
What Is An Effective ICT Team? Part 2
The team must have adherence to agreed standards (1) to ensure that the resultant system is fully understandable and maintainable by another team in the future (1.)The team must have good leadership (1) in order to keep the team motivated and on task
16 of 80
What Is Help And Support?
The first stage might be to read the software manufacturers printed user-guide (1). e on-screen help (1) to provide a search box (1). Tool tips might be available (1). Wizards could also be available (1) to explain complex features on a step by step
17 of 80
What Is Help And Support? Part 2
The company may provide a website (1) which has a series of FAQ’s (1) on often asked topics. Telephone support from the software designers could be available (1) offering the opportunity of a one-to-one discussion with an expert (1).
18 of 80
What Is Help And Support? Part 3
On-line discussion forums (1) could also be used. Third party books/magazines may also be available for the software (1).
19 of 80
What Is Transaction Processing?
A transaction is made up of data and processes that update (make a single change) to the data held on the system. Each transaction must be completed before the next transaction is begun. Examples of a single transaction include
20 of 80
What Is Transaction Processing? Part 2
Meaning that the account balance would always be up to date (1), customer placing an order over the Internet reduces the available stock Usually there are multiple users of a transaction processing system.
21 of 80
What Is Batch Processing?
Data to be input to a batch processing system is collected together (over a set period of time or until a certain batch size is reached) and then processed as a single operationBatch processing systems don’t require any human interaction
22 of 80
What Is Batch Processing? Part 2
whilst a batch is being processed. Examples of batch processing include payroll systems where many staff are paid at the same time, Many similar wage slips would be processed together at regular intervals (1) because output is not required immidate.
23 of 80
What Is Interactive Processing?
Interactive processing provides for a dialogue between the user and the system. There are ‘immediate’ responses from the system. Transaction processing and interactive processing are often combined in one single system.
24 of 80
What Is Interactive Processing? Part 2
Examples of interactive/transaction processing include Internet banking, online booking of train tickets. When using a wizard, the user provides answers to prompts supplied by the software and the software provides suitable responses
25 of 80
What Is Interactive Processing? Part 3
to solve the problem.(1) allowing the user to be taken through a complex procedure step-by-step (1)
26 of 80
Use Of Processing Retail In?
The system could use transaction processing (1) to allow each transaction to be completed. Each transaction is dealt with as it is received (1) and another cannot be started until the previous one is complete (1)
27 of 80
Use Of Processing Retail In? Part 2
allowing the stock levels to be updatupdated immediately. (1) Interactive processing could also be used. (1) The system responds immediately to a user’s actions (1), for example a user’s shopping basket would be updated as purchases were added. (1)
28 of 80
Use Of Processing Retail In? Part 3
The system could use batch processing (1) to process the order details for delivery. (1) The batches could be sorted by delivery area. (1)
29 of 80
Elements For A Small Home Network?
a suitable communications device (1) for example a router/hub. (1) A wireless connection is needed (1) to transfer data across the network. (1) Network software (1) to enable the machines to communicate with each other. (1)
30 of 80
Elements For A Small Home Network? Part 2
A suitable telephone line/communications link. (1) A web browser to access the World Wide Web. (1)
31 of 80
Media Used To Transfer Data Across A Network?
Radio waves (wireless), copper cable, or fibre optic cable.
32 of 80
What Are Standards?
Standards are needed for the successful transfer of documents. (1) An example would be portable document format (PDF). (1) The successful use of hyperlinks on web pages (1) requires the HTTP standard. (1) use a standard so that it is able to connect
33 of 80
What Are Standards? Part 2
A standard way of connecting would be to use the Universal Serial Bus (USB) (1). or when transferring files. (1) files sent from the first machine need to be in a recognised format (1) so that the receiving machine can display them correctly. (1)
34 of 80
What Is A Local Area Network (LAN)?
A local area network covers a small geographical area (1) such as a single building (1), LANs can be connected via copper/fibre optic cable (1)
35 of 80
What Is A Wide Area Network (WAN)?
A wide area network covers a large geographical area (1) such as a continent. (1) WANs can be connected by Radio/satellite/microwave links. (1)
36 of 80
What Is WWW?
The WWW is collection of multimedia resources (1) which is hosted by the Internet. (1)
37 of 80
What Is The Internet?
The Internet is a series of interlinked networks (1) which cover the globe/world. (1)
38 of 80
What Is Wireless Networking?
is possible to connect to wireless networks in many public places (1) because of global standards (1). You can work anywhere there is a signal (1) On the minus side wireless networks may be sensitive to interference (1), and this may limit the range.
39 of 80
What Is Wireless Networking? Part 2
There may be problems with security (1) because data can be more easily intercepted when it is being transferred wirelessly. (1) A weak signal may cause the laptop battery to run down faster because of high power consumption (1).
40 of 80
What Are The Benefits Of Networks?
Backups managed centrally, share hardware, share software, communication.
41 of 80
What Is An Intranet?
Use same protocols as internet, an intranet can only be accessed by the employees/members of an organisation.
42 of 80
What Is An Extranet?
Use same protocols as internet, An extranet is part of an intranet that has been made accessible to people external to an organisation (1) for example the parents of pupils at a school (1).
43 of 80
What Is Malpractice?
not following an organisations code of practice (1) example - a user walking away leaving their workstation logged on which may then be used by an unauthorised colleague (1).Leaving your computer logged on and unattended,
44 of 80
What Is Malpractice? Part 2
Writing down your password on a piece of paper and sticking it to your screen.
45 of 80
What Is A Crime?
It is an illegal act (1) example - gaining unauthorised access to a bank’s computer system with the intent to commit fraud (1).Gaining unauthorised access to a bank database and changing an account balance, Using pirated software without a licence.
46 of 80
What Types Of Legislation Are There?
The Computer misuse act, Data Protection Act, Copyright Design and Patents Act.
47 of 80
What Is Commercial And Intrinsic Value Of Data?
Personal photographs will have little commercial value (1) but may have great sentimental value to their owners. (1)
48 of 80
What Is Commercial And Intrinsic Value Of Data? Part 2
Data such as names and email addresses and personal preferences could have great commercial value (1) because they could be sold to marketing companies (1) who can use targeted marketing advertisements, Personal details can be valuable to criminals.
49 of 80
What Are External Threats?
An external threat comes from outside the system (1) for example a virus which is downloaded from the Internet (1) The network could be targeted by hackers (1) who are trying to gain unauthorised access to the network.
50 of 80
What Are External Threats? Part 2
A virus could be introduced via email (1) which could delete all data on the network. (1)
51 of 80
What Are Internal Threats?
An internal threat to an ICT system could be from an employee who has authorisation to use the system (1) who reveals his password to a colleague. (1)
52 of 80
What Are Measures To Protect Threats?
Hardware measures = Firewall to prevent hackers, Using physical security, e.g. bolting laptops down (1) so they cannot be stolen (1).
53 of 80
What Are Measures To Protect Threats? Part 2
Software measures = running virus scanning software (1) which would detect and isolate them. (1) The virus scanning software must be kept up-to-date if it is to be effective. (1) Use of a password to login (1) to prevent unauthorised access (1).
54 of 80
What Are Measures To Protect Threats? Part 3
The system ensures that the password is strong (1) so it cannot be found by using a password guessing program (1). Anti-spyware (1) and anti-virus software (1) to avoid corruption of data (1).
55 of 80
What Are Measures To Protect Threats? Part 4
Procedural methods = Use of removable hard drive to ensure that data is removed from the ICT system when not required (1).
56 of 80
Issues Regarding Security And Privacy?
A failure of the system hardware (1) which could result in data loss (1). People are concerned that correct procedures should be in place (1).
57 of 80
Issues Regarding Security And Privacy? Part 2
Theft of the data (1) which might happen because an unauthorised person has broken into the system through the network (1) or simply because someone has left their laptop in a car and it has been stolen (1).
58 of 80
Issues Regarding Security And Privacy? Part 3
If data is not transferred electronically then it might be lost in the post on a DVD-R (1) which is not encrypted (1). Many people may have access to stored data and unless it is password protected (1) or protected by access levels (1) not be private
59 of 80
What Privacy Measures Are There?
Username and password, facilities available to restrict access, firewall, government regulations.
60 of 80
What Is The Data Subject?
A data subject is a living person (1) who can be identified (1) e.g. a customer of a bank.(1)
61 of 80
What Is Personal Data?
Personal data is data that relates to me (1) and examples could be my medical records (1) or my bank details. (1)
62 of 80
How To Deal With Corrupt And Lost Files?
You could have saved your work regularly (1) on to another storage medium (1) for example a CDRW (1) so that you have more than one copy. (1) This can be used as a backup. (1) You could have attached the files to an email and emailed it to yourself.
63 of 80
How To Deal With Corrupt And Lost Files? Part 2
You could have used an Internet facility that would allow you to store the files. (1) You could have checked that you can access these files successfully if they are needed in an emergency. (1)
64 of 80
Backup And Recovery Strategy For A Website Being Used All The Time?
As the website is in use all the time, some form of continuous backup (1) would be the most appropriate. An online backup service using the Internet (1) could be used using a specialist company. (1)
65 of 80
Backup And Recovery Strategy For A Website Being Used All The Time? Part 2
Data would be continuously copied to the backup company meaning that it would be immediately available for recovery (1). There would be a very large amount of data to backup so the type of backup (1) would need to be considered.
66 of 80
Backup And Recovery Strategy For A Website Being Used All The Time? Part 3
An incremental backup (1) that only backs up the data that has changed since the last backup would be suitable. (1) This could be carried out every hour. (1) The social network provider would need to make certain that suitable hardware (1)
67 of 80
Backup And Recovery Strategy For A Website Being Used All The Time? Part 4
and trained staff (1) were available for the recovery process.
68 of 80
Factors To Consider For Backup And Recovery?
The medium that will be used to backup the data must be considered (1) As this is a home network a DVD-R may be suitable (1). The frequency of the backup must be considered (1). Depend on how often the data changes and for a home network once a week.
69 of 80
Factors To Consider For Backup And Recovery? Part 2
The backup media will need to be organised and suitably labelled (1). They will also need to be stored safely perhaps in a locked drawer in another room away from the main system (1).
70 of 80
Factors To Consider For Backup And Recovery? Part 3
The type of backup will need to be considered (1). For a home network a full backup may the easiest to carry out (1) Location of the backup should be considered (1). Who should be responsible for the back up (1). Type of backup (1).
71 of 80
Factors To Consider For Backup And Recovery? Part 4
A removable hard drive could be used as the medium for the backup (1). Use of RAID spreads the data over several disks (1) and allows for automatic recovery if a disk fails this supports continuity of service (1).
72 of 80
Factors To Consider For Backup And Recovery? Part 5
Large companies may have complete duplicate computer systems in different locations (1) and if one system fails then processing is carried on by the other (1). Consider how often the data should be backed up (1)
73 of 80
Factors To Consider For Backup And Recovery? Part 6
For example, every hour which would minimise disruption to the e-commerce service (1).
74 of 80
What Can ICT Provide?
Improved presentation of information,Improved accessibility to information,ICT can provide vast amounts of storage space,Improved security,Fast repetitive processing.
75 of 80
What Is Improved Presentation Of Information?
Electronic data projectors (1) can be used to display animated computer graphics. (1) Data can be manipulated to show trends. (1)The legibility of Information can be improved. (1)
76 of 80
What Is Improved Accessibility To Information?
ICT systems can provide access to the World Wide Web (1) and a search engine can be used to access information. (1)
77 of 80
What Is Improved Accessibility To Information? Part 2
ICT can provide software to create searchable databases. it could be searched very quickly (1) for a particular record (1) ICT interfaces can be provided for disabled users. (1)
78 of 80
What Is Meant By ICT Can Provide Vast Amounts Of Storage Space?
So that the paper sheets could be scanned and stored in a much smaller space (1). Details could be stored using database management software (1) the availability of very high capacity disk drives (1) able to store a Terabyte//1000 Gigabytes of data.
79 of 80
What Is Meant By Improved Security?
Documents made secure by using passwords to restrict access.
80 of 80

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What Is A ICT System?

Back

An ICT system is one that involves input (1), processing (1) and output (1) which goes directly to a human being (1) An ICT system consists of data (1), information (1), software (1) and hardware (1)

Card 3

Front

What Are The Components Of An ICT System?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What Are The Different Forms Data Can Take?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What Is Data?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar ICT resources:

See all ICT resources »See all An ICT System and its components resources »