History-Medicine through time

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When did the Romans rule Britain?
AD43
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When did the Romans leave Britain?
c.AD410
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What is public health?
Public health systems are organised by government to protect people from disease.
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What are 3 examples of public health systems governments put in place?
Fresh water, sewers and hospitals
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Why did the Romans want to protect the public's health?
Because they needed healthy soldiers to control the Empire
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Who was there to go to when medical help was needed? (2)
a) Your mother-home remedies were very popular b) Gods and their priests
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What was the Hippocratic Oath?
It was created by Hippocrates to give people confidence in doctors
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What were the four humours?
Blood, Phlegm, Yellow bile, Black bile
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What three things did Hippocrates believe every doctor should go by?
Observing and recording; natural treatments and keeping healthy
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What were the three things involved in keeping healthy?
Light diet, gentle exercise and rest
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What did Hippocrates believe happened when a person became unwell?
The four humours were unbalanced
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What three things made up Galen?
Careful observation; the four humours(hippocrates ideas mixed with his own) and dissection and surgery
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What was a common treatment Galen used?
Bleeding-to restore the balance of the humours
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What were the two reasons why Galen's books became the basis for medical training for over a thousand years?
1.)He covered every aspect of medicine and included the work of earlier doctors as well as his own 2.)Galen's ideas fitted in with the ideas of the Christian Church(religion)
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When did the Romans leave Britain?
AD410
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What had stopped working when the Romans left?
Public health systems
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Why had there been trained doctors in Roman Britain?(2)
1) The towns were wealthy-plenty of people could read and write 2)Britain was peaceful so people could easily learn from Galen's books and travel to learn from other doctors
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What four ideas did Roman's believe was the cause of disease?
1) God or the Devil 2)The four humours 3)Bad air and dirt 4)Desperate explanations(fashion, naughty children, minority groups)
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In 1350, what did people think caused disease?(3)
That illnesses were sent by God; natural causes; bad air or dirt
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In 1350, how did people try to avoid becoming sick?(2)
Diet, rest, exercise. Bleeding and purging(four humours)
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In 1350, how did people treat sicknesses?
Remedies made up of herbs, minerals & animal parts.
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What was the Renaissance?
A period of European history between 1400s and 1600s
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What happened in the Renaissance?
Discoveries in science which led onto the scientific revolution and breakthroughs in medicine
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What hadn't changed by 1750 (after the Renaissance)?
People were no healthier than in the Middle Ages.
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What did Andreas Vesalius make discoveries in?
The anatomy of the human body.
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What did William Harvey discover?
That blood circulates around the body.
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What does Renaissance mean?
Re-birth.
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Why did some doctors refuse to accept Vesalius's discoveries?
His work only showed that the body had changed since Galen's time.
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Why did some doctors refuse to accept Harvey's discoveries?
He was contradicting Galen.
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Why didn't both Vesalius's and Harvey's discoveries make anyone healthier?
A lot more discoveries still needed to be made.
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What was the Royal Society?
A group of people why met up to discuss new scientific ideas.
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What were William and John Hunter important leaders in?
Improving the training of doctors in the late 1700s.
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What weren't women allowed to do?
Attend university to become physicians.
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Who discovered the microscope and in what year?
A Dutchman in the 1600s.
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In what year was the first vaccination made and who by?
1798 by Edward Jenner
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What was the vaccination used to prevent people from catching?
Smallpox, one of the great deadly diseases.
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Why was Jenner's discovery so important?
It saved thousands of lives in Britain and millions worldwide. Eventually, the vaccination led to smallpox being wiped out.
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Who discovered the germ theory and in what year?
Louis Pasteur in 1861
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What was the germ theory?
Proof that bacteria cause disease.
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Why was Pasteur's discovery so important?
It put an end to all other ideas of what the cause of disease was, e.g. bad smelling air.
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Who discovered that individual bacteria causes individual disease and in what year?
Robert Koch in the 1870s
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Why was Koch's discovery so important?
Once bacteria was identified, vaccines could be developed to prevent people getting diseases.
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Who discovered the structure of human DNA and in what year?
James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953
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Why was Watson and Crick's discovery so important?
It led to treatments for diseases which have genetic causes.
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What were the four key breakthroughs in the fight against disease?
1) Development of vaccinations. 2) Germ theory. 3) Individual bacteria causes individual disease. 4) DNA.
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What does understanding DNA lead to? (4)
1) Gene therapy. 2) Customised drugs. 3) Genetic engineering. 4) Genetic screening or testing.
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When was there a major polio outbreak?
In the 1950s.
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In what year was a vaccination developed against polio?
1954
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When were measles and influenza major killers?
In the 1800s.
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In what year was a vaccination developed against measles?
In 1964.
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When was there a growth of the pharmaceutical industry?
In the late 1800s.
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What was the name given to the first chemical drugs that fought and killed bacteria inside the body?
Magic bullets.
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What year were magic bullets developed?
1909
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When were antibiotics developed?
1940s
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Who was the first person to discover penicillin but not understand the effect it could have on the development of medicine?
Joseph Lister in 1872.
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When did Alexander Fleming again discover penicillin?
1928
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How did Fleming come to discover penicillin?
Mould had developed on one of the petri dishes containing bacterial.
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In what year did Fleming write about penicillin in a medical journal?
1929
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Who was researching how germs could be killed and read Fleming's article on penicillin and in what year?
Florey and Chain in 1938.
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In what year was there enough penicillin to test on one person?
1941
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What was the first antibiotic medicine?
Penicillin.
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When was the first x-ray discovered?
1895
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Who discovered radiation therapy?
Marie Curie
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When was the first use of a thermometer?
1800s
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What woman doctor had to go to the USA to qualify as a doctor?
Elizabeth Blackwell
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Who was the first woman to qualify as a doctor in Britain?
Elizabeth Garrett Anderson
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Card 3

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Card 4

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What are 3 examples of public health systems governments put in place?

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Card 5

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