History Germany

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The Reichstag Fire- February 1933
1.Communist Van der Lubbe was arrested and killed 2. Hitler appointed Goering as chief of police and persuaded Hindenburg to declare a state of emergency. This enabled Hitler to use decrees.
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New Elections
Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to call another election in March 1933. After the election the nazis had 288 seats and Hitler used a decree to stop the communists getting their seats, so the nazis had the 2/3 majority
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Nazi seats figures
1928- 12 seats. 1930-107 seats. 1932- 230 seats
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The appeal of Hitler
Hitler appeared as a strong leader who was capable of uniting the country. He also ran for president and came 2nd with 13.4 million votes
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The strength of the nazi party
The SA had over 400,000 men by 1930 and were capable of defeating any opposition. The nazis appeared strong, disciplined, organised and reliable during a period of turmoil. Therefore they a
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The appeal of the nazis to the working class
Working class liked the nazis because: they had traditional german values, they promised work and bread and they were anti-semetic
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Nazi appeal to the middle class
Middle class had lost savings and they saw Hitler as a leader who could recover Germany's economy. They also feared the spread of communism so they felt Hitler could protect them from communists. They also agreed with the return of traditional values
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Nazi appeal to farmers
Farmers were underpaid and treated badly. The nazis promised to treat them fairly and with respect. They changed their policy of confiscating land to enable farmers to have land.
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Nazi appeal to big businesses
Industrialists and business men saw Hitler as someone who could protect them from communism. Therefore they would stay rich.
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The effect of reorganising the Nazi Party
Hitler gained more money so he was able to expand the SA, improve propaganda, spread the Nazi message and get loyalty from the SS.
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Political scheming
Schleicher persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Von Papen as chancellor in may 1932. Nazis were offered a place but refused. Despite public support to appoint Hitler as chancellor Hindenburg appointed Von Schleicher.
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Political scheming
Von Scheicher asked Hindenburg to suspend the constitution and make him a military dictator. He refused and had to resign. Von Paper persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler. Hitler became chancellor in January 1933
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The enabling act- March 1933
This gave Hitler the right to pass laws without going through the Reichstag for 4 years. It was passed with 444 votes to 94
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The Night of the Long Knives- June 1934
Hitler disliked SA as they weren't loyal to him. He feared they could overthrow him as they had 3 million members. SS leaders killed SA leaders such as Rohm and Von Schleicher
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Banning of other political parties and trade unions
In May 1933 Hitler made trade unions and strikes illegal. In July 1933 he made all political parties except his illegal. The nazis were now untouchable.
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The death of Hindenburg- August 1934
Hitler combined president and chancellor and made himself the Fuhrer of the Third Reich. He made all soldiers swear an oath of personal loyalty to him. A plebiscite was organised and 90% of voters were in favour of Hitler's decision
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The police state- The SS
Led by Himmler and in the 1930s had 50,000 members. All members were Aryan and were expected to marry Aryan women. They ran concentration camps and arrested people without trial.
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The Police state- the Gestapo
Led by Hermann Goering in 1933. They were non-uniformed secret police and were feared by everyone. They became an SS unit in 1936 and were taken over by Heydrich
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Laws
In 1933 there were 3 crimes punishable by death but by 1943 there were 46. All judges were loyal to Hitler and most were Nazis. They spread the nazi message
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Blockleiters and Gauleiters
Blockleiters were in charge of neighbourhoods and had to write reports on residents. Disloyal residents would be arrested by the Gestapo. Gauleiters led individual regions and ensured there was tight control
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Churches 1933-39
1933 concordat with Pope promising each would leave each other alone. 1936- Reich church set up under Bishop Muller ( a nazi) 1938- all church schools were banned .
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Censorship- radio
Nazis controlled all radio stations. Millions of cheap radios were made- by 1939 70% of Germans had a radio. This allowed Hitler to spread his message to everyone
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Censorship- Cinema
A 45 minute newsreel was shown before each film, showcasing the Nazis. From 1934 all films had to be approved by Goebbels. Many political films were produced such as Hitlerjunge Quex in 1933 which showed a nazi being killed by a communist.
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Censorship- newspapers
The Nazi newspaper sold over 2.4 million copies a day by 1933. In 1933 3% of newspapers were nazi controlled but in 1944 82% of them were
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Rallies and festivals
Nuremburg rallies were held every September and they epitomised the Nazi strength. Arenas that could hold up to 400,000 were built.
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Sport
The 1936 Berlin Olympics showcased German efficiency to the world. A new stadium holding 110,000 was built. Germany won 33 gold medals- the most in the world. Hitler also paid athletes unlike other countries.
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Universities
The Nazis didn't respect academia. Between 1933 and 1938 3000 university lecturers lost their jobs.
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Literature
Books were burned. In Berlin 20,000 books written by Jews and communists were burned by students.
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Music
Classical music was favoured. Jazz was banned and so was Mendelssohn's as he was jewish.
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Theatre
The Nazis liked plays about politics and history. Tickets were cheap as it was an easy way for the nazi message to be spread. People could join the cultural association and this allowed them to watch ten plays for half price at any time
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Censorship
Hitler used every form of leisure and entertainment to spread his message.He ensured no opposing message could be spread and even if it was the Gestapo would arrest the person.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

New Elections

Back

Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to call another election in March 1933. After the election the nazis had 288 seats and Hitler used a decree to stop the communists getting their seats, so the nazis had the 2/3 majority

Card 3

Front

Nazi seats figures

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The appeal of Hitler

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

The strength of the nazi party

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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