Health and Social Care

What is a percentile chart?
A percentile chart is used to monitor a child's weight and height to show where the child is co,pared to other children their age. The 10th percentile represents 10% of children, the 50th percentile represents 50% of children, etc.
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What is conception?
The fertilisation f an egg by a sperm resulting in the formation of a zygote.
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What is delayed and arrested development?
Delayed development happens when a foetus s not shown development within the expected time range. Arrested development means development has stopped resulting in either a still birth or a miscarriage.
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What are factors that can cause delayed or arrested development?
Stress, smoking, genetic conditions, physical abuse, STI, diseases, medication, drugs, alcohol (alcohol-foetal syndrome)
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What happens in week 1 of foetal development?
Fertilisation takes place in the Fallopian tube when a single sperm and egg meet and fuse together to form a single cell called a zygote. At 3-4 days after fertilisation the zygote leaves the Fallopian tube and enters the uterus.
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What happens in week 3-4 of foetal development?
At 3 weeks the cells form a hollow cavity known as a blastocyst which burrows itself into the uterus lining, this is called implantation. At 4 weeks the group of cells is now called an embryo and the outer cells reach out to from the placenta.
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What happens in week 5-8 of foetal development?
The cells fold up and round to make a hollow tube called the neural tube which will become the baby's brain and spinal cord, by the end of week 5 5)3 blood circulation will begin. At 6-7 weeks the embryo is now classed as a foetus.
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What happens in week 9-13 of foetal development?
By now all of the baby's organs and structures have formed and the baby is moving around but the mother won't feel it.
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What happens in week 13-20 of foetal development?
He body is growing so that the head and body are in proportion and hair, eyelashes and eyebrows are growing.
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What happens in week 21-24 of foetal development?
The baby is covered in fine hair called lanugo, they say that the purpose of this is to keep the baby's temperature right. You may be able to feel the baby move as well.
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What happens in week 25-29 of foetal development?
The baby moves vigorously and resonds to light and sound, the baby's heartbeat can be heard through a stethoscope. The baby is covered in a white greasy substance called vernix.
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What happens in week 30-31 of foetal development
The baby is plump and smooth, both the vernix and the lanugo starts to disappear.
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What happens in week 32-40 of foetal development?
The baby is preparing for birth and will often gun downwards in preparation. Before birth the head may move down into the pelvis where they are 'engaged'. The average size of a full term baby is 2.7-4.1kg and 50-53cms long.
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What is a fine motor skill and a gross motor skill?
Fine motor skill is using your smaller muscle groups, e.g. Hand. Gross motor skills are using your large muscle groups, e.g. Legs, arms and torso.
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What gross motor skills should an 3-8 year old have?
3 years = are able to use pedals on a bike, run and balance on one foot. 4 years = kick and throw a large ball. 5 = hop on each foot. 6/7 years = skip and ride a bike. 8 years = good strength and coordination.
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What fine motor skills should a 3-8 year old have?
3 years = use a pencil to copy letters and build a tower with cubes. 5 years = dress and undress themselves. 8 years = old control of small muscles and can draw.
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What is adolescence?
An important status change following the onset of puberty during which a young person develops from a child to an adult.
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What is puberty?
A period of rapid growth during which young people reach sexual maturity and become biologically able to reproduce and secondary sexual characteristics develop.
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What's the average age for a female and male to start puberty?
Females usually start their period between 11-13 years. Males usually start puberty between 13-15 years.
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What hormones do females and males release?
Females release oestrogen and progesterone and males release testosterone.
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What are the primary sexual characteristics for females?
The uterus enlarges and the vagina lengthens. The ovaries begin to release eggs. The menstrual cycle commences.
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What are the primary sexual characteristics for males?
Enlargement of the penis and testes. Spontaneous erections caused by blood flowing into chambers in the penis. The testicles begin to produce spermatozoa.
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What are the secondary sexual characteristics for females?
Breasts begin to develop and the areole swells and darkens. Hair grows in armpits and pubic area. Redistribution of body fat causing hips to widen.
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What are the secondary sexual characteristics for males?
Changes in the larynx (Adams apple) causing voice to deepen. Air grows in admits, public area and face. Redistribution of muscle tissue and fat.
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Early adulthood (19-45 years)
They are at their peak physical performance bewteeen 19-28 years. Reached full height and strength. Reaction time and dexterity is at peak.
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Pregnancy and Lactation
Oestrogen helps the uterus grow, maintains the lining, steps up blood circulation, activates and regulates other key hormones (morning sickness) progesterone only comes into action when pregnant. Hips widen, belly grows and breasts grow.
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Perimenopause (woman in 40s)
Ovaries gradually begin to make less oestrogen which stops production of eggs. This lasts until the perimenopause. Perimenopause lasts about 4 years.
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What are the symptoms of perimenopause?
Hot flushes and night sweats. Breast tenderness. Loss of libido. Fatigue. Irregular or heavy periods. Vagubal dryness. Mood swings. Urine leakage.
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Middle Adulthood (46-65 years)
Risk of miscarriage rises with age. 45-55 years of age fertility reduces and menopause may happen which is the gradual ending of menstruation and reduction of fertile eggs. Increase in hormone called gonadotropins.
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What are the effects of ageing?
Loss of elasticity in skin, loss of muscle tone and strength, grey hair, thinning of hair and hair loss.
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Later Adulthood (65+ years): What is life expectancy?
An estimate amount of years on average that a person can expect to live.
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What can happen during the ageing process?
The heart is susceptible to diseases. Individuals may lose height due to posture and compression of the spinal disks and joints. Loss of strength and muscle. Mobility and dexterity become more difficult. Visual and hearing problems.
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What happens to the intellectual abilities in later Adulthood?
Parkinson's and Alzheimer's are more common. Mild cognitive impairment can be an early sign of a disease. Ageing can cause a loss of nerve cells in the brain. Their body may be slower and they may forget things but it doesn't mean they have a disease
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What is intellectual development?
This refers to how individuals organise their ideas and make sense of the world which they live.
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What are the 5 aspects linked to intellectual development?
Language development, problem solving, memory, moral development, abstract thoughts and creativity.
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What are the intellectual and language skills in infancy and childhood?
At birth the baby's brain is 30% of the size of an adults brain but by the age of 2 the brain is about 80% of its size. Language development begins before birth and develops rapidly.
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Piaget's Model: what is abstract logical thinking?
The ability to solve problems using imagination without having to be involved practically.
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What is egocentric thinking?
Not being able to see a situation from another persons view. Piaget thought that children assumed that other people see, hear and feel the same as every child.
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What is concrete logical thinking?
The ability to solve problems prociding an individual can see or physically handle the issue.
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What is equilibrium?
A state of cognitive balance when a child's experience is in line with what they understand.
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What is disequilibrium?
A state of cognitive imbalance between experience and what is understood.
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What is accommodation?
Modifying schemas in relation to new information and experience.
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What is Piaget's model?
He focused on how children acquire the ability to think and concluded that children think differently to adults due to the maturity levels. Infants only use egocentric thinking as they only understand the world from their perspective.
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What are Piaget"s 4 stages of intellectual development?
sensorimotor which is from birth to 2 years old. Preoperational which is from 2-7 years. Concrete operational which is from 7-11 years. Formal operational which is from 11-18 years.
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What is a schema?
Piaget believed that when children go through a series of intellectual development it's called a schema. The original schemas are modified and changed when presented with new information.
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What are the tests of conservation?
The idea that something's appearance can change but the quantity stays the same, this skill comes to children at the age of 7.
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What are criticisms of Piaget's model?
The theory was based on a small amount of children, some children learn and develop at different rates. Bruner disagrees with Piaget and believes that with adult support children are able to progress to higher thinking levels.
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What is Chomsky's Language Acqusition Device? (LAD)
Children are preprogrammed to acquire the language that the mother has and it evolves naturally. Language develops due to maturation. Chomsky applied his ideas to all languages.
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What are criticisms of Chomsky?
Lack of scientific evidence, Bruner would argue that social interactions is critical and has more influence, he didn't talked into consideration of those that have delayed language development.
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What is emotional development?
It is the way an individual begins to feel about and value themselves and other people. It forms a basis of emotional literacy and empathy.
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What is emotional literacy?
Understanding and being able to describe emotions.
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What is empathy?
It is where you place yourself in someone else's shoes.
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What is attachment?
Where there is a bond between 2 people and it begins with attachments to a main care-giver.
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What is self-image?
How you see yourself.
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What is self-esteem?
How you feel about yourself.
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What does Bowlby believe?
He believes that everybody is biologically preprogrammed to form attachments. Attachment is a survival mechanism and is linked to the importantce of social, emotionless and cognitive development.
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What is the critical period?
Bowlby believed that infancy is a critical period for forming positive attachments, the criticism period is at the age of 2. This is because the primary caregiver provides comfort and safety.
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Why do infants need to be in close proximity to their caregiver?
When they are under stress or feeling threatened baby's want to be near the caregiver for security.
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How can maternal deprivation cause issues?
If a baby is taken away from its mother than it can cause delinquency or a lowered IQ.
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What are social releases?
'Cute' behaviours which trigger the mothers to the attachment system.
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What are criticisms of Bowlby?
Rutter argued that maternal deprivation in itself may not cause long term issues as the problems with privation is more damaging.
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What did Schaffer and Emerson do?
Tidied 60 children at monthly intervals for the first 18 months of their life to investigate the formation of early attachment. The children were studied in their own homes and their interactions with carers were observed.
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What were the measures that were recorded?
Stranger anxiety which is the response to arrival of a stranger. Separation anxiety which is the distress level when separated. Social referencing which is where the child look sat carer to check how they should respond to something new.
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What are the factors affecting attachment?
Parents with addiction, absent parents, abuse/health issues, disabilities, premature baby's, large families, foster care/adoption, post-natal depression.
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What is prematurity?
The baby may have to be taken away from the mother straight away which means that they won't get that skin to skin contact that is advised.
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What is post-natal depression?
The mother may not want to see the baby or spend time with it as they don't 'like' it, making it difficult to form an attachment.
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How can separation make forming attachments difficult?
Some mothers may work in the army full time so therefore unable to get the attachment that other mothers would.
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How can foster care/adoption make forming attachments difficult?
If the baby isn't adopted by the age of 2 then they will find it difficult to attach to someone.
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How can emotional unavailability affect the attachment?
If the mother has an addiction the they might feel more love towards that then their baby which means that they could end up in hospital and the baby not being able to see them.
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How can disabilities affect the attachment bond?
If the baby has a disability when born then the mother could feel that she doesn't love the baby like she should.
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What are the stages of play in infancy and early childhood?
They develop a sense of self, interaction with other children and learn how to make friends and how to role play. Piaget highlighted the importance of play for learning and development.
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What is solo play?
This is where children play on their own and can explore the environment at their own pace, this is usually at the age of 0-1 as this helps with attention, self reliance, trial and error and increasing their self esteem.
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What is parallel play?
From the age of 2-3 years children move to playing alongside other children. They haven't learnt sharing skills yet so he may need their own independent activity whilst with another child.
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What is co-operative play?
Ages 3-8 years, children widen their social network to form relationships. Emotional development increases and children learn and recognise other skills emotions which helps them to play together.
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What are the effects of peer pressure on social development?
During adolescence peer groups are influential with their views, opinions and values and this can cause your life to be challenging.
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How is peer pressure challenging?
Drugs, alcohol, smoking, relationships, who your friends are, sex, where you go, what you wear, ignoring parents, ignoring rules, dangerous activities.
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Developing relationships:
Young children form relationships through play and make up as quickly as they fall out. Relationships for older children are more complex as they start to think beyond thei down needs and are able to see the work from other perspectives.
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What's an informal relationship?
Relationships within families and significant people, this starts in infancy and are built on strong bonds of trust and understanding.
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What's a formal relationship?
They don't involve emotional attachment but are important to social development. They demand different skills of confidence and self esteem.
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How is independence gained in infancy and childhood?
they are able to dress themselves, brush their teeth, nursery - able to interact with others, school.
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How is independence gained in adolescence?
They have more friends which influence their opinions but they may be different to family. When they're 17 they are able to start driving.
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How does starting employment increase independence?
They manage budgets and saving. Adapt from school to a work place. They mix with older people and can learn from their experiences. Income allows them to do what they want with it.
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How does leaving home increase independence?
Sacrifices will be made, such as lower standards of living, housework, paying bills, distance from relatives means there is little help.
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How does starting a family increase independence?
You have your own family, the children rely on you, less time for yourself.
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What are the cognitive factors in early adulthood?
Realistic manners, pragmatic approach, expert knowledge from experience, abstract thinking and independence.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is conception?

Back

The fertilisation f an egg by a sperm resulting in the formation of a zygote.

Card 3

Front

What is delayed and arrested development?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are factors that can cause delayed or arrested development?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens in week 1 of foetal development?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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