Health & social

Creative play
When children engage in play where they make the rules & are free to use imagination to invent games, act stories & create songs or stories. Creative play is unstructured & self-directed, & all children should be given opportunities to engage in creative
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Benefit of creative play for children's learning & development
This play is important as it develops skills in problem-solving, language skills & abstract thinking. Children use creative play to express emotions through art, & develop social skills by teaching them to respect the feeling & ideas of others.
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Examples of creative play
It is important to create an environment that supports creativity with arts and craft, like crayons, markers, paper, modelling clay; dressing-up clothes; props for dramatic play; musical instruments; and imagination toys, such as dolls, shop and home corn
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Imaginative play
Through imaginative play the child uses their imagination & creativity whilst they learn how to take turns, cooperate, share, and work on language development
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Benefits of imaginative play for children's learning & development
Through imaginative play, children develop social skills & behaviours they need for adult life by acting out adult roles, such as doctor, nurse, teacher, shopkeeper, police officer etc. They also develop an understanding of how society & communities work
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Research from Piaget to present day, has shown the wide range of benefits for children play. Play does not just benefit the child, it benefits families & the community. It improves children's learning, their health & quality of life. Play keeps children b
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Benefits of play for children
1. gives them the opportunity to mix with other children
2. builds resilience through risk taking & challenges, problem-solving, & dealing with new & novel situations
3. provides opportunities for developing social skills & learning, & for children of al
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Benefits of play for families & communities
1. parents can feel secure knowing their children are happy, safe & enjoying themselves
2. families benefit from healthier, happier children & play provision is often a focal point for communities
3. outside spaces such as playgrounds & parks, have an i
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Importance of play
Play is important for developing social skills that will be used throughout life. Children learn how to work in groups & as part of a team, learning how to share, negotiate & solve conflicts. Play also is an important way for children to develop an active
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Skills children learn through play pt.1
Develops children's physical skills - children practise & develop fine & gross motor skills, reflexes, coordination & balance. Playing encourages children to take risks in a safe environment, which leads to a sense of achievement & promotes self-esteem.
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Skills children learn through play pt.2
Play gives children the opportunity to explore & investigate new sensory stimuli & feeds their natural curiosity about the world. Children are natural learners & want to discover new things, They can discover science & nature & learn how to interact with
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Skills children learn through play pt.3
Play supports cognitive development & creativity. Children should be encouraged to take the lead. Directing their own play choices develops concentration, patience & perseverance. Through their own play, they develop their creativity.
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Attachment - Bowlby
Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment suggests that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive.
A child has an innate (i.e. inborn) need to attach to one main attac
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What Bowlby suggest?
Bowlby’s suggests that there is a critical period for developing at attachment (2.5 years). If an attachment has not developed during this time period then then it may well not happen at all. Bowlby later proposed a sensitive period of up to 5 years.
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What was Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis?
Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis suggests that continual disruption of the attachment between infant and primary caregiver could result in long term cognitive, social, and emotional difficulties for that infant.
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According to Bowlby what is an internal working model ?
According to Bowlby, an internal working model is a cognitive framework comprising mental representations for understanding the world, self and others, and is based on the relationship with a primary caregiver. It becomes a prototype for all future social
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Psychosocial - Erikson
Influenced by Freud, Erikson developed the most significant theories of child development. However, his is psychosocial rather than psychosexual
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What did Erikson believe?
Believed a child's personality develops in stages & that each stage of development builds on the previous one. Each stage has a conflict that once the individual successfully manages, they will develop new psychosocial strengths used throughout life.
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Erikson's relation to children's learning
Helped teachers & parents understand how people, especially children, can form their own identities through different life stages.
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Erikson's life stages
Birth to 18months= trust vs mistrust
2-3 years= autonomy vs shame + doubt
3-5years= initiative vs guilt
6-11years= industry vs inferiority
12-18years= identity vs confusion
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Strengths of Erikson's theory
1. Further research has occurred since Erikson proposed his theory-supporting his views on development
2. Provides broad framework
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Weaknesses of Erikson's theory
1. These stages can occur more than once/at different times of life
2. Erikson's stages are concrete, whereas numerous cultures vary in ages of toilet training, breastfeeding and even marriage
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A theorist who studied attachment & theories that go against Bowlby. He believed the quality of attachment than forming it during the critical period Bowlby stated.
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What did Rutter believe?
Rutter found that privation leads to clingy & attention seeking behaviour. This turns into a child being unable to follow rules. Resulting in delays in language, intellectual + physical development, negatively affecting a child's learning. He believed its
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Social learning theory - Bandura
Developed social learning theory, which is seen as an important link between behaviourism & cognitivism. Bandura believes the learning process has three central components-observation, imitation & modelling.
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What did Bandura believe?
He stated that the behaviourism could not account for all types of learning, & developed a theory that was a combination of behavioural theory- where behaviour is the result of conditioning-and cognitive theory, which depends on memory & attention.
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The Bobo doll experiement
Bandura showed that children will copy violent behaviour once they have observed it. This is called learned behaviour. He identified three types of observed behaviour. 1. active, verbal and symbolic
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Importance of social learning theory
The social learning theory emphasizes the importance of practitioners acting as positive role models as it shows how children will imitate & learn behaviour from others. The Bobo doll experiment also illustrates how any negative behaviour will also be cop
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Emotional learning theory -Goleman
It is now recognised that emotional intelligence is just as important as intellect, and this has resulted in social & emotional learning becoming part of educational curricula all over the world. Research has shown that having a high intellectual ability
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Emotional intelligence and its use in education
Schools that promote social & emotional learning produce children with a high emotional intelligence, which Goleman believes reduces bullying & disciplinary issues. A child's emotional intelligence will also be dependant on their background and home envir
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Piaget - constructivist theory
Was one of the first psychologists to research the way in which children develop cognitively. His theory was that children's intelligence develops as they grow & that learning is not just the acquisition of knowledge, but that the child needs to construct
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What did Piaget believe?
Believed that children construct this world tough interacting with their environment and moving through a series of stages that are dependant of their age
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Stages dependant on their age
Birth to 18-24m= The sensorimotor stage-the child's goal is to develop object performance. 2-7y= The preoperational stage-the child's goal is to develop symbolic thought. 7-11y= The concrete operational stage-the child's goal is to develop logical thought
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Piaget's theories of child development
1. children see the world in a different way to adults & think differently.
2. Children actively interact with their environment to build their knowledge & understanding of the world. They do not rely on adults to develop this understanding.
3. Piaget d
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Piaget theory- schemas
Piaget believed that knowledge does not simply develop out of experiences, but that we have internal building blocks called schemas that help us make sense of the world around us. Schemas are a way of organising knowledge when we experience the world arou
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Piaget theory - adaption
Piaget believed cognitive development was the process where we adapt or adjust to the world through assimilation, accommodation & equilibration.
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Piaget theory adaption - Assimilation
Through assimilation, we fit new information into an existing schema. For example, a child may see a picture of a zebra and believe is a stripy horse as they have not learned what a zebra is
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Piaget theory adaption - Accommodation
When we change an existing schema to incorporate new information adjusting the information we already have to add new information. Eg the child will add the information that a zebra is not a stripy horse but a different animal entirely
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Piaget theory adaption - Equilibrium
Is what happens when a child's schemas are able to accommodate new information. Piaget thought equilibrium was important to drive the process of learning through the need to restore balance by assimilating & accommodating new information
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Piaget theory - The sensorimotor stage
The child learns about the world through exploring the environment through their senses and actions
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Piaget theory -The preoperational stage
Children can represent the world through language and mental imagery
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Piaget theory -The concrete operational stage
Children become less egocentric and start to think about how other may feel or think differently
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Piaget theory -The formal operational stage
The child can think of hypothetical problems and decide on a range of solutions
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Benefit of creative play for children's learning & development


This play is important as it develops skills in problem-solving, language skills & abstract thinking. Children use creative play to express emotions through art, & develop social skills by teaching them to respect the feeling & ideas of others.

Card 3


Examples of creative play


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Card 4


Imaginative play


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Card 5


Benefits of imaginative play for children's learning & development


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