Health and Body

What is a neurone?
Basic building block of the brain, specialised cell used to transmit info to cells around the body.
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How many different parts are there of a sensory neurone?
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Sensory Neurones:
Carries signals from receptors to brain + spinal cord.
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Receptor Cell:
Receives chemical signals.
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To relax muscles.
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Conducts electrical impulses away from neuron's cell body; transmit info to different neurons, muscles + glands.
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Myelin Sheath:
Insulating layer forms around fibres + allow electrical impulses to travel quickly.
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Branchea Protoplasmic extensions of nerve cells that spread electrochemical stimulation received from other cells.
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Peripheral Branch:
Part of nervous system outside of brain and spinal cord.
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Central Branch:
Part of nervous system containing brain and spinal cord.
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Axon Terminal:
Branches of an axon.
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Between 2 neurons, has neurotransmitters which allow signals to diffuse across.
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What are Motor Neuron's?
Carry signals from CNS to effectors.
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What are effectors?
Organ/cell which acts in response to stimuli.
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What are the parts of motor neurone that differ from a sensory neurone?
Cell nucleus (controls cell), Cell body (contains cell organelles), Deharites (receive inputs from nerve cells), rest the same.
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How does a neurone impulse actually pass from one end of the neurone to the other?
Neurone impulse passes along 1 neurone to the next, over synapse. Done by electrical impulse down axon, nerve-ending releases neurotransmitters. Chemicals diffuse across synapse + bind to receptor of next neuron. Only bind to specific chemicals...
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this then stimulates 2nd neurone to transmit electrical impulse.
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What is an Action Potential?
Basic events nerve cells use to transmit info from one place to another. Great importance to function of brain as spread info in nervous system to CNS + spread commands started in CNS to periphery.
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What is a Resting Potential?
Maintained by sodium-potassium pump and possible because membrane itself not very permeable to ions. Done by pump using energy stored in ATP to pump sodium + potassium across membrane.
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How does the structure of myelinated nerve fibres enable quicker impulses?
The fibres make impulses quicker cause of gaps in myelin sheath + Nodes of Ranvier. Formed along axons and/or nerve fibres present. Allows action potential to pass down axon by jumping from node to node, so quicker.
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Depression: Signs and Symptoms
-difficulty remembering, concentrating and decision making -fatigue, low energy -guilt, helplessness, worthlessness, hopelessness -insomnia, excessive sleeping -restlessness -loss of interest -appetite loss -suicide - headaches, aches/pains
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D: What is the problem?
Imbalance of chemicals in brain --> relate to how body feels pain (monamines). People who suffer with feel/register pain differently/deeper. e.g. seratonin, dopamine, nordrenaline
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D: Treatment
Therapy sessions, medication can be prescribed, rarely = electroconvulsive
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D: Statistics
4% of 5-16 year olds = depression/anxiety; 1 in 4 in UK experience mental health each year, 1 in 6 in Uk report mental health issue each week.
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Alzhiemers: Signs and Symptoms
Memory loss, difficulty concentrating and problem solving, problems finishing daily tasks, visual/space difficulties, language problems, mood swings
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A: What is the problem?
Degeneration of neurones/synapses in brain; proteins build up (plaque); reduced synthesis of Acetylcholine (AC) which has impact on memory, attention, motivation --> cholinergic hypothesis
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A: Treatment
Drugs to slow down process; 1 = add more AC, 2 = add enzyme that stops break down of AC, 3 = component to replace AC
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Parkinson's: Signs and Symptoms
Slowing of voluntary movements, decreased expressions/blinking, slurring of speech, difficulty balancing, hand tremors, light headaches or dizziness.
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P: What is the problem?
Degeneration of neurones in brain ganglia where cells produce 70% of dopamine (motor neurones, help movement)
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P: Treatment
Add more dopamine (levodopa turns to dopamine, can break blood -> brain barrier); try to stop the breakdown (add tomacapone + entacapone - inhibit COMT which breaks down dope); replace lost dopamine (dopamine agonsit)
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How many different parts are there of a sensory neurone?



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Sensory Neurones:


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Receptor Cell:


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