hazaurdous earth

  • Created by: Ronel.p
  • Created on: 31-12-17 00:03
The crust is the outer layer of the earth and is thin layer made from solid and rigid rock layer upon which we live on.
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what is plate tectonics
late tectonics is the theory that explains the way plates on the Earth’s crust move and how and why volcanoes and earthquake occur
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what are plate tectonics
What are tectonic plates? The Earths crust is divided into 7 major and a number of minor plates, these move in different directions and are powered by convection currents in the semi-molten mantle.
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inner core
solid layer made from iron and nickel, temperatures reach 6000o( very dense)
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Thick layer made up of semi-molten rock called magma.In the upper parts of the mantle the rock is hard, but lower down the rock is soft and beginning to melt.
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outer core
It is a liquid layer, also made up of iron and nickel.4500-5500o( quite dense)
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two type of crust
continental crust and oceanic crust
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continental plate and oceanic plate made of
is mainly granite, while oceanic crust is mainly basalt
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which crust is less dess then the other
continental plate is less dense than oceanic but are both more less dense then athenosphere
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what is the lithosphere
The liithosphere is the crust and very top of the mantle
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Convergent plate boundaries
two plate collide, one plate flow beneath another( subduction ) create many earthquake and volcanoes
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collision plate boundries
two continental plates collide and two plates buckle creates many earthquake
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divergent plate boundaries
rising convection currents pull crust apart forming volcanic ridge creates earthquake
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conservative plate boundaries
two plates slides past each other creates earthquake
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hotspots are points on the earth crust with very high heat flow, whioch is linked to increased volcanic activity
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how does subduction occur
when an oceanic plate meets a continental plate. The oceanic plate is denser due to the oceanic water above it
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what is a volcano
a volcano is an opening or vent in the earths surface though which molten material erupts and solidifies
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three states of volcanoes
extinct, dormant and active
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what an extinct volcano
volcano will never erupt again
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what an dormant volcano
has not erupt in 2000 years
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what an active volcano
has erupted recently and is likely to erupt again
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two different types of volcanoe
composite and shield volcanoes
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what are shield volcanoes
they have gentle slopes and are very wide and are formed when lava is very hot and very runny consisting of many thin layer of rock
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composite volcanoes
are steep sided vol anoes consisting of layers of ash and lava which are very explosive because the lava is thick (significant pressure builds these volcanoes and often spectacular eruptions
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ash cloud
an ash cloud is the cloud of ash that forms in the air after some volcanic eruption
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a circular depression in the ground from which magma erupts
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what magma chamber contain
a magma chamber contains magma
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side vent
a side vent is a vent in the side of a volcano
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main vent
a vent is an opening in the earths surface through which volcanic material erupt
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primary hazards
those that occur as a direct result of the volcanic eruption
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secondary hazards
those that occur because of a change in environment following an eruption
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primary impacts as a result of a volcano
death and injuries/ destruction of buildings or damage to buildings/ destruction or damage to roads, railways, bridges , farmland
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how bad primay impacts depend on for a volcano
intensity of the eruption and whether its in a crowded city or sparsely populated
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secondary impacts as a result of a volcano
atmospheric pollution caused by ash, lahar
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how bad secondary impacts depend on for a volcano
countries are able to afford better monitoring, prediction, warning and preparation and response system
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how to predict a volcanic eruption
tiltmeter are used om the side of the volcano to gauge surface movement because these could indicate when the volcano is filling with magma and about to erupt and boreholes measure water temperature underneath a volcano which monitorwhen magma heatup
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preparing for an earthquake
setting up exclusive zone and evacuating people from inside exclsive zone
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the point on the surface directly above the focus
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the centralpoint of the earthquake deep under the surface, where the earthquake actually happens
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what plate do earthquake are most common on
convergent boundaries
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why are composite volcano more dangerous
composite volcanic eruption involve andesitic magma, which contain a lot of silca. This clogs up the volcano vent so pressure builds up in the volcano thsi leads to very violent eruption
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what is earthquake measured in
richter scale using a instrument called seismometer
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primary impacts as a result of a earthquake
death and injuries/ destruction of buildings or damage to building or damage roads
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secondary impacts as a result of a earthquake
fires casued by fractured gas pipes and broken electrcity pylons/ landslides on steep or weak slopes
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how bad primary effect depend on for aearthquake
how strong a earthquake is and whether is crowded or sparsely populated
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how to prepare for an earthquake
a seismometer (1) is used to pick up the vibrations/foreshocks in the Earth's crust (1). An increase in vibrations may indicate a possible earthquake
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what reason do people have to remain in places of volcanic activity
Farming: Volcanic soils very fertile/ Tourist attractions
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what si a earthquake
An earthquake is the shaking and vibration of the Earth's crust due to movement of the Earth's plates (plate tectonics). Earthquakes can happen along any type of plate boundary.
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reasons for the distribution of volcanoes
clusters/chains of volcanoes near island chains occur on convergent plate boundaries (1) caused by oceanic crust being subducted under continental crust (1)
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what is plate tectonics


late tectonics is the theory that explains the way plates on the Earth’s crust move and how and why volcanoes and earthquake occur

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what are plate tectonics


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inner core


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