Global Networks

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  • Created by: em42
  • Created on: 04-05-15 11:21
1. What types of global connections tie the world together as never before?
Mobile phones, even in remote areas. Instant personal & business internet communication. Low-cost jet air travel. Cable & satellite media channels. Favourtie brands e.g. Coca-Cola, Nike etc. available globally.
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2. Why can it be easy to forget that this connectivity isn't available to everybody?
Living in the UK with an annual income of £15 000 might allow access to most of th connections yet ~6 bn people worldwide live on lower incomes.
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3. What does the worldwide disparity in connections mean?
The disparity means that some places benefit from global networks & become 'switched-on' while others remain poor & 'switched-off'.
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4. How have commercial jetliners changed from the 1950s to 2007?
In the 1950s, the first commercial jetliner, DeHavilland Comet, could carry 100 passengers 5 000 km. The 2007 Airbus A830 can carry up to 850 people 15 000 km.
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5. How have low-cost airlines changed air travel?
Airlines such as EasyJet & Ryanair have made air travel available to a wide market & are spreading to the developing world e.g. India's Air Deccan launched in 2003.
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6. What are some of the effects of increased air travel?
Reduces perceived distance between places. Increases cultural mixing, exotic places become 'normal' experiences. Allows workers to move cheaply to areas of demand. Allows TNCs to move personnel & goods between production & sales locations.
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7. Why does air travel connect some places more than others?
The greatest connection density is between 'global hubs' in North America, Europe & Asia.
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8. What is meant by the term 'global hub'?
They are world cities/'global regions'. All are in economic core areas of the world & are centres of great wealth.
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9. Give an example of how hubs are extremely well connected to each other.
The financial, TNC & travel connections between London & Tokyo.
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10. What do hubs act as?
They act as regional nodes integrating the gloabl economic cores such as the EU & connecting them to other cores.
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11. What do TNCs from hubs do?
They invest in emerging hubs, e.g. Banglaore in India & Shanghai in China, thus creating new connections.
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12. What have linkages between governments, TNCs and international organisations produced?
A global super-rich class of media executives, lawyers, accountants, PR people, bankers & retailers who live in hubs & hop between them.
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13. How has the internet grown?
It was a technology that was rare in the mid-1990s & ~1.9 bn people were using the internet in 2010. Yet the growth has been uneven, creating a 'digital divide' between the developed & developing world.
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14. How does the 'digital divide' link to income levels?
The internet requires: a PC/laptop, a complex & reliable telecommunications infrastrucutre, internet service providers (ISPs), the ability to pay for a connection & companies willing to invest in providing services e.g. online booking & shopping.
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15. What does usage growth of the internet show?
Usage growth in the developing world is rapid, but low density. Africa remains the big 'loser' in terms of internet use.
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16. Compare the estimated internet use in 2010 of Africa and North America.
Africa: % population (penetration) - 10.9, % of total world users - 5.6, usage growth '00-'10 (%) - 2 350. North America: % population (penetration) - 77.4, % of total world users - 13.5, usage growth '00-'10 (%) - 150
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17. There are numerous benefits to the internet and it has a significant role in development, what does it provide?
Education & health advice. Reduced isolation of rural areas. Access to the best price for buying & selling goods. Business opportunities e.g. online shopping. Communication with branch plants & customers. 'Technological leapfrogging' (bypassing
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17. There are numerous benefits to the internet and it has a significant role in development, what does it provide? [continued]
of stages that others had to go through). Exchange of political ideas & information (although some countries such as China, Myanmar & North Korea may restrict access to this information).
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18. The internet has reduced the need to travel but how has it increased the demand for travel?
It allows for the 'exploration' of distant places, plus online booking of holidays, flights & tours.
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19. Why has the tourism business grown faster in the developing world than the developed?
Lower-cost air travel & a desire for 'something different' has led people to travel to more exotic locations. Some developing countries gain up to 40% of their GDP from tourism. Many are tourist hotspots that have seen rapid growth e.g. Cuba.
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20. Why can getting switched on through be tourism easier?
It requires less physical infrastructure than complex, hi-tech industries & uses natural, human & cultural resources already present in a region, but without careful management it can ruin the very resources it is based on.
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21. Give an example of of a commodity export that developing regions often depend on for their income.
Bananas of which there are 2 types: 'Colonial' - from small farms in former British, French & Dutch colonies in Africa & the Caribbean, 'Dollar' - large plantation-grown bananas from Latin America sold by American TNCs (Dole, Del Monte & Chiquita).
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22. Why did Banana Wars begin in 1996?
The EU favoured bananas from the small colonial producers & applied a 20% tariff to banana imports from dollar banana exporters. The UK & France argued that supporting small developing world producers was crucial to the economies of those countries.
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22. Why did Banana Wars begin in 1996? [continued]
The USA, dollar banana companies & TNCs that control 70% of the dollar banana trade disagreed. A WTO ruling in April '08 backed the dollar banana producers. In '11, EU agreed to reduce import tariffs on dollar bananas.
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23. What does this show about connections between countries?
That traditional connections between nations are being replaced by conections created by TNCs.
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24. Who are the winners (W) and losers (L) of the Banana Wars?
Consumers in the EU are likely to get cheaper, better-quality, dollar bananas (W). The Big 3 banana TNCs will extend their sales & profits (W). The dollar banana countries will see trade grow (W). The ex-colonial countries & small farmers are
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24. Who are the winners (W) and losers (L) of the Banana Wars? [continued]
likely to see shrinking trade & income (L). For workers on the dollar plantations, jobs will continue, but pressure groups argue that working conditions & wages are worse than in the colonial banana countries (L).
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25. Why have some locations remained switched off?
They are peripheral locations which have been bypassed by globalisation & remain seemingly trapped in poverty. This includes Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of south Asia, central South America & the near east.
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26. Why does political instability mean the periphery has not attracted investment?
Wars, conflicts, poor governance & corruption deter investors due to high risks.
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27. Why does debt mean the periphery has not attracted investment?
It stifles economic growth & prevents investment in human resources through provision of education & health.
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28. Why does lack of a good infrastructure mean the periphery has not attracted investment?
E.g. efficient roads, rail, power & water supplies, means production costs are high & distribution is unreliable.
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29. Why do physical constraints mean the periphery has not attracted investment?
E.g. a harsh terrain & unreliable climate, combine with environmental hazards e.g. flooding & soil erosion.
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30. Why do poverty and disease mean the periphery has not attracted investment?
They produce a low-skilled, inefficient workforce that would cost too much to train.
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31. What does a combination of these switched on & switched off factors create?
It creates marginalisation. When investment in the periphery does occur, through tourism & resource exploitation, it is highly localised, creates few jobs & fails to produce connections that might generate broader economic growth.
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Card 2

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2. Why can it be easy to forget that this connectivity isn't available to everybody?

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Living in the UK with an annual income of £15 000 might allow access to most of th connections yet ~6 bn people worldwide live on lower incomes.

Card 3

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3. What does the worldwide disparity in connections mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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4. How have commercial jetliners changed from the 1950s to 2007?

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Card 5

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5. How have low-cost airlines changed air travel?

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