Glacial Geomorphology

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Geomorphological equation
Form= (Process times material) divided by time
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How much of the world's freshwater is locked up in glaciers?
75%
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How much of the land's surface is glaciated?
10% /15 million km2
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If all glacial ice was to melt, by how much would the average sea level rise by?
75 metres
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What is uniformitarianism?
The theory that the same geomorphological processes taking place today, also influenced the landscape in the past.
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Who stated: "The present is the key to the past?"
James Hutton (18thC)
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What evidence is there for glaciers covering a greater land area than today?
Trimlines- Where there is no vegetation- glaciers have shrunk back recently. Glacial erratics- Different rock type to the surrounding bedrock so must have been transported. Striations in bedrock- Eroded by rocks being transported. Moraines.
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Where is ice mainly found today?
High latitudes (poles); High altitudes (alpine)
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Define: glacier
"Rivers of ice formed when snow is compressed under many layers to form first firn then eventually ice."
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How large are glaciers?
Range in size from a football field in length to over a 100km.
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What impacts is global climate change having on glacial environments?
Many glaciers are declining/retreating up valleys. Loss in biodiversity if animals and plants are unable to migrate to another suitable habitat.
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How fast is the Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica retreating?
0.95km-1
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Why is the Pine Island Glacier retreating so quickly?
Thinning at the glacier terminus due to ocean-driven melting under the floating section of the glacier.
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What methods were used to measure the retreat of the Pine Island Glacier?
Satellite observations between 1992 and 2011
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Authors of the Pine Island glacier study?
Park et al, 2013. Sustained retreat of the Pine Island Glacier. Geophysical research letters. 40 (10) pp2137-2142
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Where is the majority of glacial ice found?
Around the south Pole- over 12,000,000km2
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What is negative mass balance?
Where melting>ice accumulation. Glaciers retreat.
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Card 2

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75%

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How much of the world's freshwater is locked up in glaciers?

Card 3

Front

10% /15 million km2

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

75 metres

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The theory that the same geomorphological processes taking place today, also influenced the landscape in the past.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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