Germany 1914-1945

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  • Created by: T Colby
  • Created on: 09-06-15 17:43
What happened in November 1918?
The German Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated and the First World War ended.
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Who took control of Germany after the Kaiser abdicated?
Frederick Ebert and the SPD (socialists)
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What treaty was signed at the end of the First World War which put strain and changes on Germany?
Treaty of Versailles (T of V)
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After the Kaiser's abdication, what type of constitution had Germany become?
Republic
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Give some strengths of the T of V.
Germany was now the most democratic country in the world and state governments were maintained.
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Why was Germany the most democratic country in the world due to the T of V?
Everyone aged 20 and over could vote and had equal rights.
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What could continue as state governments were continued?
State traditions were maintained.
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What new voting system was brought in due to the T of V?
Proportional representation
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True or false. The President could protect Germany in a crises by making laws without going to the Reichstag.
True
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What was a negative of the President possessing the power to make laws without going to the Reichstag?
The power could be abused
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What were the weaknesses of the T of V?
Free speech gave oppostion groups freedom to attack the new government, no changes were made to the army or judiciary, the voting system made it hard for governments to carry out unpopular policies and the President could choose the Chancellor.
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What were the main five terms of the T of V?
Loss of territory, payment of £6600 million in reperations, admit blame for causing the war, demilitarisation of the Rhineland and reduce the size of the army and navy.
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What was the name of the clause that meant Germany had to except blame for causing the war?
War Guilt Clause
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What did Germans think of the T of V?
They despised it.
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What did the T of V do to the Weimar government?
Reduced it's popularity and increased support for opposition groups and parties.
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In what month of 1919 was the government told it had to except the peace terms of the T of V or the allies would invade?
June
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Who led the Spartacist Revolt in January 1919 against the Weimar government?
Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht
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What did the Spartacists do in their uprising?
Took over the government's newspaper and telegraph bureau and tried to organise a general strike in Berlin.
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What did the Weimar government do in response to the Spartacist Revolt?
Sent Freikorps (groups of former soldiers) to put down the revolt and street fighting ensured.
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True or false. The Spartacist leaders were shot by the Weimar government at the end of the revolt.
True
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When did the Weimar government sign the T of V?
June 1919
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When was the new constitution for the Weimar government set up?
August 1919
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When did Hitler join the German Workers' Party?
September 1919
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True or false. Hitler never served in the First World War.
False, he did and was injured by gas.
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When did the German Workers' Party change it's name and to what?
24th February 1920 to National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazis).
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When did the Kapp Putsch take place in Berlin?
March 1920
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Who led the Freikorps during the Kapp Putsch?
Dr Wolfgang Kapp
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What did the Weimar government do in response to the Kapp Putsch?
Asked the army to suppress the putsch and trade unions to organise a general strike.
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How did the army and trade unions respond to the government's pleads?
The army refused but trade unions agreed.
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What was the consequence of the trade unions agreeing to the Weimar government's plead?
Kapp couldn't rule Germany and was forced to flee.
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When did Hitler take over from Anton Drexler as leader of the Nazi Party?
1921
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Give two ways that the Nazis improved support from 1920-22.
Had its own newspapers and held public meetings.
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Who were the SA in connection to the Nazis from 1920-22?
Stormtroopers who were the violent arm of the party who broke up communist meetings and beat people.
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When was the SA formed?
1921
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What four ideas Nazi policies support?
Nationalism, socialism, anti-communism and anti-semitism
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What inspired the 1919 Spartacist Revolt?
The Russian Revolution in 1917 which overthrew Tsar Nicholas II
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When did hyperinflation occur in Germany?
1923
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What does hyperinflation mean?
An extreme increase in prices in a short time.
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What causes hyperinflation?
When a country has less gold reserves than money which means the value of money goes down and prices go up.
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When did French troops invade the German Ruhr Valley to take reperation payments from goods and raw materials?
January 1923
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When was the German mark effectively worthless?
November 1923
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What were the negatives of hyperinflation?
People couldn't afford essentials (bread), wages rose but not as quickly as prices, some bussinesses went bankrupt, people with fixed or monthly pentions suffered the most, savings became worthless and people blamed the Weimar government.
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What were the positives of hyperinflation?
Farmers were paid more for food, some people and businesses could pay off loans and fixed rents for rooms or shops became very cheap.
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Give some reasons for why the Nazis started the Munich Putsch.
The Nazis thought they were ready, the Weimar government was unpopular, the Bavarian government was right-wing and the Nazis thought they'd support them, Mussolini took over the Italian government in 1922, they thought army might support them
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What did the SA and Nazis do during the Munich Putsch?
SA burst into a Munich beer hall where the head of the Bavarian government was addressing a meeting, Hitler announced they were taking over the government and the next day Hitler, Ludendorff and about 300 supporters marched through Munich.
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What were some of the repercussions of the Munich Putsch?
A gun battle took place with Police and 16 Nazi supporters were killed, Ludendorff and Hitler were arrested, Nazi Party was banned and leaders imprisoned
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What did Hitler do during his nine month out of five year prison sentence?
He wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle)
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Why did the Nazis not succeed in the Munich Putsch?
They weren't organised, police were better prepared, too few Munich people supported the Nazis, Bavarian government didn't join them, the army didn't support them and the Putshc appeared a failure.
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What were the successes of the Munich Putsch?
Hitler and other Nazi leaders re-thought ideas, Nazis gained publicity and Mein Kampf became a bestseller and people were sympathetic to Nazi ideas, Nazis were only periodically banned and Hitler didn't serve five years.
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Who was the Chancellor and Foreign Secretary from 1923-1929 which aided German recovery?
Gustav Stresemann
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Give the eight measures by Stresemann that boosted recovery.
End of passive resistance, introduced Retenmark which was converted to Reichsmark, Dawes Plan with USA, US loans, Locarno Treaties, German entry to League of Nations and Young Plan.
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When did the French withdraw from the Ruhr?
1925
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Give some evidence of recovery.
More stable government, little support for extremist parties, unemployment fell, new homes, railways and roads were built, German industry was back to pre-war leveles in 1928, Germany was one of the leading exporters of manufactured goods by 1930.
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Give some remaining problems during the recovery.
Short-lived coaltion governments, US loans helped Germany not Germany itself, farming was depressed, Dawes and Young Plans were unpopular with nationalists.
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What was the recovery period in the 1920s also known as?
The Golden 20s
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By 1928 how many members did the Nazi Party have?
Over 100,000
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Give the four main Nazi reforms from 1924-28.
Went from local to national, targeted rural areas, different organisations were set up within the Nazi Party and the SA changed from violence and intimidation to order and disipline.
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How did the Nazis get their messages across?
Meetings, Mein Kampf, posters and newspapers, propaganda and rallies.
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Who were the main groups in German society that supported the Nazis?
Young people, skilled workers, farmers, middle and upper classes who feared communism.
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What caused the Great Depression?
Wall Street Crash
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In 1932 how many Germans were unemployed?
6 million
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How many Germans were unemployed in 1928?
800,000
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What happened to German businesses as a result of the Wall Street Crash?
Pay back loans, no investment from the US, pay increased taxes to government and worlwide no one had money to buy German goods.
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What happened to the German government as a result of the Wall Street Crash?
Couldn't borrow money from the US, refused to print more money, increased taxes, made cuts in unemplyment benefit and government workers had wages cut and some lost their jobs.
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What happened to the German people as a result of the Wall Street Crash?
Businesses reduced staff or closed, millions of workers and and farm labourers lost jobs, young people were affected by job losses and families suffered poverty.
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What were the political impacts of the Great Depression?
Weimar government was blamed, lack of strong leadership, two main parties (Centre Party and SDP) couldn't agree, President Hindenburg passed laws without Reichstag consent, new economic policies were unpopular and extremist parties became popular.
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How many seats did the Nazis have in 1928?
12
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How many seats did the Nazis have in 1930
107
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How many seats did the Nazis have in July 1932?
230
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Who was incharge of Nazi propaganda?
Joseph Goebbels
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What was Hitler's image like from 1929-32?
Portrayed as a superman who could end the German crises and blamed Weimar politicians, communists and Jews for the problems.
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What was the SA's image like from 1929-32?
Had improved and they had about 600,000 members.
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Who voted for the Nazis in July 1932?
Agricultural workers, middle classes, working classes, upper classes and big business, young people and women.
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Who beat Hitler in the Presidential election of March/April 1932?
Hindenburg
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Who did Hindenburg replace Chancellor Heinrich Bruning with in May 1932?
von Papen
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What party held Reichstag elections to gain support but lost seats in July 1932?
Von Papen's Centre Party
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When did von Papen call another election where the Centre Party lost seats?
November 1932
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When did President Hindenburg remove von Papen as Chancellor and replace him with von Schleicher?
December 1932
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When did von Scchleicher resign?
28th January 1933
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When did Hitler become Chancellor?
30th January 1933
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When was the Reichstag burnt down due to the Reichstag Fire?
27th February 1933
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Who did the Nazis blame for the Reichstag Fire?
German Communist Party, arrested 4000 communists and blamed Dutch communist Marius van der Lubbe.
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When did Hindenburg pass an emergency decree after being persuaded by Hitler?
8th February 1933
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What did the emergency decree allow?
Arrest and detain people without trial, search and confiscate property, read post, listen to telephone calls, censor the press and stop people organising meetings.
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What Party was the biggest by March 1933?
Nazi Party
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What did the Enabling Act mean in March 1933?
Gave Hitler the power to make any law he wanted for four years without Reichstag consent. Germany was no longer a democracy.
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How many votes passed the Enabling Act?
444 to 91
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The emergency decree meant that 81 communists couldn't do what?
Take up their seats and vote for or against the Enabling Act
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True or false. Hitler made deals with the National and Centre parties for the Enabling Act.
True
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True or false. The SA didn't surround the meeting and threaten opposition politicians during the Enabling Act.
False, they did.
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What opposition did the Enabling Act allow Hitler to get rid of?
State parliaments, trade unions and other political parties.
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What happened on the Night of the Long Knives?
Hitler arranged a fake meeting with SA leader Ernst Rohm and SA leaders which the SS arrested and shot them in Munich. In the following days others such as Gregor Strasser and Kurt von Schleicher were killed.
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What were the consequences of the Night of the Long Knives?
Few people were left to rival Hitler, the army swore allegiance to Hitler in August and the SS was established as a major force.
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When did the Night of the Long Knives take place?
30th June 1934
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Why did the Night of the Long Knives happen?
The SA was no longer needed, the SA was powerful enought to overthrow Hitler as it had nearly 2 million members, SA leaders had bad reputations and there was power struggle between the SS leader and the SA leader.
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Who was the SS leader?
Heinrich Himmler
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When did Hindenburg die?
August 1934
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Give some ways that the Nazis controlled German society.
Against the law to tell anti-Nazi jokes and listen to foreign radio stations, SS arreested people under protective custody, Gestapo spied on people, prisoners taken to concentration camps, law courts under Nazi control etc.
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What does SS stand for?
Schulz-Staffel (protective squad)
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When and why was the SS created?
1925 as a small group of bodyguards for Hitler.
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When did Himmler start leading the SS?
After 1929
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What did the SS act as for the Nazis?
Police of the Nazi state.
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Who also supported the SS?
Gestapo (secret police)
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Who ran the concentration camps?
SS
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Where was the first concentration camp opened?
Dachau
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What was Goebbels Minister of?
Enlightenment and Propaganda
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What did Goebbels control for Nazi propaganda and censorship?
Newspapers, the radio, book publishing, films and the arts.
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Give some methods of censorship.
Public burning of Jewish books and opposition, radio producers, playwrights, filmakers and newspapers were told what to say, opposition newspapers were closed and only radios that couldn't recieve foreign stations were made.
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What were some methods of Nazi propaganda?
Posters, cinemas, radio speeches, art and rallies.
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What were some Nazi beliefs?
Hitler as all powerful leader, Aryan racial superiortiy, war,violence and military disipline was important and dominance of the strong over the weak.
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What were some opposing Christian beliefs?
God as ultimate authority, everyones equal in the eyes of God, peace is what should be strived for and the strong should look after the weak.
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When were Catholic shcools closed?
1934
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When did the Catholic Youth Organisations become illegal?
1937
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True or false. The Nazis set up their own Reich Church in 1933.
True
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Why was there a lack of opposition to the Nazis?
People resisted privately and not openly, Nazi policies improved many Germans' lives, opposition groups were banned, people feared the SS, the Gestapo and concentration camps, large number of informers and genuine support for Hitler.
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Give a religion and key person that opposed Hitler and the Nazis.
Christian/Catholic Church and Pope Pius XI
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Give four other groups of opposition except religious groups.
The White Rose Group, Edelweiss Pirates, army opposition and Operation Valkyrie.
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Who and where was the the White Rose Group set up?
Munich University by Hans and Sophie Scholl and Jurt Huber.
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Were the three leaders of the White Rose Group caught and executed?
Yes
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True or false. The White Rose Group were violent.
False, they weren't.
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Give one way that the White Rose Group created opposition against the Nazis.
Distributing anti-Nazi leaflets.
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What main Nazi group did the Edelweiss Pirates oppose?
Hitler Youth
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What was the symbol of the Edelweiss Pirates?
Edelweiss plant
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How did the Edelweiss Pirates oppose the Nazis?
Wore anti-Nazi clothing. E.g. girls wore makeup. Also they listened to banned media, jazz, wrote anti-Nazi graffiti, spread Allied propaganda leaflets, gave shelter to army deserters and attacked members of the Hitler Youth and Gestapo.
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True or false. In 1944 the Edelweiss Pirates killed the head of the Cologne Gestapo.
True
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What happened to some caught Edelweiss Pirate members?
Hanged
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Why did the army oppose the Nazis, SS and Hitler in the 1940s?
Army suffered defeats on the eastern-front against the Russians and soldiers saw and didn't like SS brutality.
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Who led Operation Valkyrie?
Colonel/Count von Stauffenberg
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How did Stauffenberg try to assasinate Hitler?
Bomb in a briefcase
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Why did Stauffenberg's bomb fail to kill Hitler?
He was protected by a table.
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Where and when did Stauffenberg try to kill Hitler?
At a military conference in East Prussia on 20th July 1944.
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What then happened to Staffenberg after his bomb failed?
He and 5746 others including 19 generals and 27 colonels were executed.
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Describe the ideal Nazi woman.
Blonde hair and blue eyes, produces a family, wore traditional clothes, natural appearance, non drinker and smoker, would marry, believe in kinder, kuche, kirche (children, kitchen, church), not go to university and stays at home.
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True or false. The Nazis gave money to couples who wed as women didn't work.
True
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True or false. Couples were let off one-quarter of their marriage loan repayments for each child they had.
True
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True or false. The German Women's Enterprise gave women medals for having children.
True
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What medal was given to women that had four or five children?
Bron
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who took control of Germany after the Kaiser abdicated?

Back

Frederick Ebert and the SPD (socialists)

Card 3

Front

What treaty was signed at the end of the First World War which put strain and changes on Germany?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

After the Kaiser's abdication, what type of constitution had Germany become?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give some strengths of the T of V.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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