Geography Tectonics Part 1

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What are the differences between oceanic crust and continental crust?
Oceanic crust is newer, denser (more likely to sink) and can be destroyed and renewed.
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What is a destructive plate margin?
A plate margin where two plates are moving towards each other resulting in one plate sinking beneath the other.
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What is a constructive plate margin?
A plate margin where two plates are moving apart.
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What is a conservative plate margin?
A plate margin where two plates are sliding alongside each other.
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What are terraces?
Terraces are steps cut into hillsides to create areas of flat land.
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How are fold mountains used for agriculture?
In Bolivia, many subsistence farmers grow a variety of crops on the steep slopes. They use the terraces for water retention. Examples of crops include: soya beans, rice and cotton.
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How are fold mountains used for mining?
Tin = Peru and Bolivia, Nickel = Colombia, Silver = Peru and Chile, Gold = Peru. The Yanacocha mine is the largest gold mine in the world. The nearby town of Cajamarca, Peru, has grown in inhabitants from 30,000 when the mine began to about 300,000.
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How are fold mountains used for HEP?
The steep slopes and narrow valleys are an advantage for HEP. Water is more easily dammed in narrow valleys and the relief encourages the rapid flow of water. In 2009, the El Platanol HEP Plant began to generate electricity. It cost US $200 million.
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How are fold mountains used for tourism?
In the Andes, the remains of early settlements build by the Incas like Machu Picchu are popular. Skiing and winter sports are also available in colder regions of the mountain range.
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What are the characteristics of a Composite Cone Volcano?
Steep-sided symmetrical cone shape. High with narrow base. Alternate layers of acidic lava and ash. Subsidiary cones and vents form. Examples include: Mount Etna and Vesuvius.
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What are the characteristics of a Shield Volcano?
Gentle slopes and wide base. Frequent eruptions of basic lava. Lava flows more easily; travels longer distances before cooling. Eruptions are usually non-violent. Examples include Mauna Loa and Kilavea.
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What caused the Montserrat volcanic eruption?
Lave dome at Chances Peak collapsed. Tectonic margin: Carribean + North American. Composite cone volcano. Dormant for 300 years, active for 10 years.
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What were the effects of the Montserrat volcanic eruption?
Rock/Ash eruption. Pyroclastic surge was formed down the Tor River Valley which had a speed of 128 km/h. Plymouth was destroyed. Airport closed. 12 feet of ash - over 50% of island destroyed.
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What were the responses to the Montserrat volcanic eruption?
Evacuation of South - temporary port at Little Bay near Doug Hill. School and hospitals had to be established in St John's. 4,500 people remain on and live on the island. Many people were forced to emigrate to other Caribbean islands, UK or USA.
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What are the differences between a normal volcano and a super volcano?
A super volcano is bigger than a normal volcano. A super volcano is flat and doesn't have a cone. A super volcano is more destructive and will probably kill all life within a 50km radius.
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Describe the likely effects of an eruption at Yellowstone?
The magma chamber beneath Yellowstone is believed to be 80km long, 40km wide and 8km deep. An eruption is likely to destroy 10,000 square kilometres of land and kill 87,000 people. Global climates would change and crops will fail.
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What were the primary effects of the Kobe Earthquake?
Part of Kobe was entirely destroyed. 100,000 homes collapsed. 10% of city infrastructure was lost. 10% of schools were destroyed. 6,500 people died and 30,000 were injured.
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What were the secondary effects of the Kobe Earthquake?
300,000 people were homeless. 2 million homes were without power. 1,000,000+ homes were without water for 10 days. $220 billion was the estimated cost of the damage and the economy suffered. Companies such as Panasonic had to close temporarily.
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How are earthquakes predicted?
A tiltmeter can check any movement within the rocks. Fore-shocks before the main quake can be detected by a seismometer. Animals can act strangely before the earthquake - Haicheng, 1975 (150,000 saved). Water levels can rise.
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How are buildings protected from earthquakes?
Interlocking steel frames - "Birdcage". Automatic window shutters to prevent falling glass. Foundations sunk into bedrock, avoiding clay. Fire-resistant building materials. Rubber shock-absorbers to absorb earth tremors.
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How are the citizens prepared for an earthquake?
Individual emergency kits. Organise regular "earthquake practices". Education.
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What are tsunamis?
Tsunamis are usually triggered by earthquakes. The crust shifting is the primary effect; a secondary effect of this is the displacement of water above the moving crust. This is the start of a tsunami.
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Outline the key facts of the Boxing Day Tsunami?
Time = 8:00am. Date = 26th December 2004. 17m high wall of water. Top speed = 850km/hr. 300,000 people killed. Energy of 23,000 atomic bombs.
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What were the effects of the Boxing Day Tsunami?
Homes, crops ans mainlands were destroyed. Entire towns were wiped off the map. 1 in 10 people survived in some areas. Agriculture and Fishing (sources of income) were destroyed. Reconstruction took up to five years.
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What were the relief efforts of the Boxing Day Tsunami?
$7 billion was donated worldwide for the affected countries. People in the UK donated £330 million. The UN's World Food Programme provided Food Aid for more than 13 million people.
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What was introduced due to the Boxing Day Tsunami?
The Tsunami early warning system was introduced due to the Boxing Day Tsunami. Formal warnings are now sent to countries throughout the region if there is a tsunami threat. These warnings are then passed on to individuals.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a destructive plate margin?

Back

A plate margin where two plates are moving towards each other resulting in one plate sinking beneath the other.

Card 3

Front

What is a constructive plate margin?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a conservative plate margin?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are terraces?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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