Geography Unit 2B

  • Created by: Amy_5639
  • Created on: 14-04-18 15:33
1.What is development?
It's the progress in economic growth, use of technology and improving welfare that a country has made
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2.What is meant by the development gap?
The difference in development between more and less developed countries
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3.List five measures of development.
Gross National Income (GNI), life expectancy, Human Development Index (HDI), infant mortality rate, birth rate
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4.Give one way countries can be classified.
They can be classified by how wealthy they are
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5.What do HIC, LIC and NEE stand for?
LIC=lower income country, HIC=higher income country, NEE=newly emerging economy
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6.Describe five stages of the demographic transition model.
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7.How is a country's level of development linked to the different stages of the DTM?
The lower the stage= the lower developed the country=birth rate high, so population growth is faster
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8.Give four physical factors that can affect how developed a country is.
A poor climate, poor farming land, few raw materials, lots of natural hazards
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9.Give two historical factors that can affect how developed a country is.
Colonisation, conflict
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10.Give three economic factors that can affect how developed a country is.
Poor trade links, lots of debt, an economy based on primary products
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11.What are the consequences of uneven development?
Wealth, health, international migration
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12a.Explain how debt relief can reduce the global development gap.
It means that some of their debt is cancelled or interest rates are lower which means they have more money to develop rather than to pay back the debt
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12b.Give six other strategies to reduce the global development gap.
Aid, fair trade, using intermediate technology, investment, industrial development, tourism, microfinance loans
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13a.Name one country that is trying to grow tourism to close the development gap.
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13b.Describe how it is doing this.
It attracts tourists because of its tribal culture, safari wildlife, warm climate and beautiful scenery
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14.What is a TNC?
Trans-National Corporations
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15.How can TNCs help the development of a country?
They create jobs, employees in poorer countries get a more reliable income, they spend money to improve the local infrastructure, new technology and skills are brought to poorer countries
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16.What is India's current level of development?
Medium level of development, education is improving but the adult literacy rate is still less than 70%, some people are very wealthy but the majority are poor
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17.How is India's industrial structure changing?
Primary=becoming smaller part of India's economy. Secondary=stimulating economic development, provide reliable jobs, bring more income than primary industry. Tertiary+quaternary=become much larger part of the economy, contributes 53%of India's GDP
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18a.Name a TNC that operates in India.
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18b.Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this TNC to India.
Advantages=provides jobs, greater income from tax, help poor women become entrepreneurs, help run hygiene education programs, help development, provide sanitation. Disadvantages=environmental problems,take advantage of local government incentives
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19.What is the difference between short-term and long-term aid?
Short term= helps with immediate disaster relief. Long term=intended to help the recipient countries funded to become more developed
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20.Explain the difference between top-down and bottom-up aid.
Top-down=when an organisation or government receives the aid and decides where it should be spent. Bottom-up=money is given directly to local people to improve health, skills and income
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21.Describe the impact of India's economic development on quality of life.
There are more jobs and wages have increased meaning that people have more money to improve their life e.g. by securing access to clean water. But jobs in industry can be dangerous e.g. coal mining
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22.Describe the environmental impacts of India's economic development.
Energy consumption has increased leading to lots of pollution and greenhouse gases, demand for resources can lead to destruction of habitats. But increased income means that they can afford to protect the environment
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23.What are the main causes of economic change in the UK?
De-industrialisation, globalisation, government policies
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24.What sort of industry has become more important as the UK becomes post-industrial?
Tertiary and quaternary industries, IT, finance, research and development
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25.Why has there been an increase in the number of science parks in the UK?
There's a large and growing demand for high-tech products, the UK has a high number of strong research universities, cluster of related businesses next to each other can boost each other
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26a.What is the north-south divide?
The decline of heavy industry has had a greater negative impact on the north of the UK, but the growth of the post-industrial service industry has mostly benefited the south. In general, economic and social indicators tend to be better in the south
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26b.How is the UK government trying to reduce the north-south divide?
Devolving more powers, creating enterprise zones, the northern powerhouse
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27.Give two contrasting ways that changes in the UK's economy are affecting rural areas.
It has meant that there has been fewer jobs-agriculture and manufacturing, which meant that the population has gone down, leading to a decrease in services-schools, shops, businesses closing
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28.Why is it important that the UK continues to improve its transport networks? How is it doing so?
Because congested transport networks can slow economic development, so improving them ensures continued economic growth. E.g. 'smart motorways' with extra lanes, new runways in airports
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29.Give examples of the UK's strong links with other countries.
Trade-UK trades globally with USA, Europe, Asia. Culture-UK's strong creative industries mean that UK culture is exported worldwide. Transport=Channel Tunnel links UK to France by rail providing a route for goods and people to access mainland Europe
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30.How can the effect of industry on the environment be reduced?
Modern industrial developments are more environmentally sustainable, better environmental awareness, increasing energy and waste disposal costs
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2.What is meant by the development gap?


The difference in development between more and less developed countries

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3.List five measures of development.


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4.Give one way countries can be classified.


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5.What do HIC, LIC and NEE stand for?


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