Gene techonolgy

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  • Created by: Sopha8
  • Created on: 02-06-15 17:10
What are the 3 possible mutations that can occur in the base sequence of DNA? what can they cause?
subsitution, deletion, addition/insertion. cause shift in base triplets after deletion/addition so different sequence of amino acids coding for proteins
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What genes controll cell division and what are the conseuquences of mutations?
1-tumour suppresor gene=slow cell division by producing protein to stop/cause cells to self distruct 2-proto-oncogene=produce proteins to make cells divide. oncogene and mutation in TSgene cause cells to divide uncontrollably causing tumour
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Describe prevention, diagnosis and treament of acquired mutations
prevention=reduce exposure to mutagenic agents. diagnosis=more specific tests, regular screening for high individuals. treament= if known mutation gene therapy could be used, can tell how agressive cancer will be and treat accordingly
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Decribe prevention, diagnosis and treament of hereditary mutations
prevention=family history avoid mutagenic agents and have DNA analysed. diagnosis=increased screening. treatment=depends on mutation
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Explain what a stem cell is and how it becomes specialised
unspecialised cells that can either develope into any type of body cell (totipotent found in embryo) or few types of cells (multipotent found in bone marrow)
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How does plant tissue culture work?
totipotent cell taken from meristem, placed in sterile agar (no competition), divide and grow into unspecialised mass, develope into specialised cells depending on conditions
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Explain how reverse transcripase is used to make DNA fragments
mRNA, free DNA nucleotides and reverse transcritase enzyme are mixed together forms cNDA, only copys coding part unlike other 2 methods
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Explain how reverse polymerase chain reaction is used to make DNA fragments
mixture of DNA sample, free nucleotides, primers andf DNA polymerase heated to 95o to break H bonds in double helix, then cool so primers bind to strands, heated to 72o for DNA polymerase to line up DNA free nucleotides along each strand, repeat.
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Explain how restriction endonuclease is used to make DNA fragments
restriction endonucleas enzymes cuts DNA (by hydrolyisis) at palindromic sequence that has complimentary shape, sometimes leaves sticky ends
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What are the stages of in vivo cloning?
1-isolate vector DNA, cut using same resitriction endonuclease as target gene 2-DNA ligase joins together sticky ends of vector and target gene forming recombinant DNA 3-transfer to host cells 4-identify transformed cells by using maker gene -->
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What are the advantages of genetic engineering?
ad=higher yields/ more nutrious/pest or drought resistant crops, produce biological catalyst for industry (cheaper, quicker), produce drugs (cheap, quick, large quantities)
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What are the disadvantages of genetic engineering?
monoculture (vulnerablity, reduce biodiversity,superweed), toxins in food? large companies have lots of power over lives put others out of buiness, unethical uses e.g. designer babies
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Card 2

Front

What genes controll cell division and what are the conseuquences of mutations?

Back

1-tumour suppresor gene=slow cell division by producing protein to stop/cause cells to self distruct 2-proto-oncogene=produce proteins to make cells divide. oncogene and mutation in TSgene cause cells to divide uncontrollably causing tumour

Card 3

Front

Describe prevention, diagnosis and treament of acquired mutations

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Decribe prevention, diagnosis and treament of hereditary mutations

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Explain what a stem cell is and how it becomes specialised

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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