Genetics - Cell Division, Mutations, Phenotypes & Genotypes

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Define 'evolution'
The change in genetic composition of a population over successive generations, which may be caused by natural selection, inbreeding or mutation.
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Define 'natural selection'
A process in nature in which organisms possessing certain genotypic characteristics that make them better adjusted to an environment tend to survive, reproduce, increase in number or frequency, and therefore, are able to transmit and perpetuate their
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Define 'mutation'
The process in which such a change occurs in a gene or in a chromosome.
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Define 'variation'
An individual(s) that possesses characteristics different from the others of the same kind.
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What is Meiosis also recognised as?
Reduction division
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What is Meitosis also recognised as?
Reduplication division
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Define a 'gene'?
It is because a gene is a segment of DNA (on a specific site on a chromosome) that is responsible for the physical and inheritable characteristics or phenotype of an organism.
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What are genes in combination with mutations known as?
Alleles
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How do genes work?
They convert raw material to products via enzymes
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Why can alleles be beneficial/deleterious to us?
Beneficial - better chances in natural selection, Deleterious - bad: fewer chances in natural selection
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What are Genotypes?
Combinations of all alleles in a person
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What are Phenotypes?
The part of our genetic potential we show
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Define 'dominant'
The allele that will always show itself in the phenotype
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Define 'recessive'
Alleles that can only be seen in homozygous recessive genes (aka. both recessive genes, i.e. aa)
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What is the recessive part of the phenotype?
The raw material that cannot be converted (maybe as a result of alleles rather than properly functioning enzymes)
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What is the dominant part of the phenotype?
The product
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Card 2

Front

Define 'natural selection'

Back

A process in nature in which organisms possessing certain genotypic characteristics that make them better adjusted to an environment tend to survive, reproduce, increase in number or frequency, and therefore, are able to transmit and perpetuate their

Card 3

Front

Define 'mutation'

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define 'variation'

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is Meiosis also recognised as?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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