Gender- Psychology- Roles of genes and hormones.

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Why is sex a major influence on gender?
Because it is how gender is determined. (For example: Penis means Male sex identity, which would usually lead to a masculine gender identity).
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How many pairs of chromosomes are there? and how many are responsible for sex?
There are 23 pairs of chromosomes and 1 pair is responsible for sex.
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What is genetic transmission?
It explains how individuals acquire their sex. It may also explain some aspects of gender because of the link between genes, genitalia and hormones.
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When does sexual development occur pre-natally?
At 3 months (Both sexes develop the same until this time point).
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What happens after 3 months of pre-natal development?
Sex hormones are released ( Male= Testosterone, Female= Oestrogen) and tissues respond (growth of Testes etc).
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What is AIS?
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome- where tissues don't respond to the sex homrones, due to the individual being resistant to the Androgens. Extreme cases can lead to no external male genitalia and a female sex identity.
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Outline Imperato-McGinely's Case study on the Batista Family.
The four children were born with Female external genitalia and were therefore given a female identity. However a surge of testosterone during puberty lead to the development of Male genetalia.
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How did the Bastista family react the this change?
The children accpeted their change easily because they witness other family members experience the same change, Therefore suggesting some form of genetic basis (inherited gene).
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AO2- What is wrong with the fact that the research into genes are case studies?
Case studies aren't repeatable and aren't very reliable. Due to the small sample size the research isn't representative of the entire population and can't be generalised.
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AO2- How did Money and Erhardt conflict with the theory of sex being an influential factor on gender identities?
They suggested that Biological sex wasn't the only factor in gender development. Rearing is more important. If a child is born inter-sex, they can be nurtured into any gender.
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AO2- Outline the David Riemer case study.
David= born as Brian (Mz twin), due to a Botched circumscion at 6 months he lost his penis, so Bruce was raised as Brenda. She experienced inner turmoil and became and outcast. Her parents revealed her true identity and she immediately became David.
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AO2- How did the case study of David Riemer conflict with Money et al's theory?
Showed that there was some biological influence on Davids gender identity seeing as he still wanted to be a boy even though he was reared as a girl. Illustrates that rearing isn't the only influential factor.
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AO2- How did Reiner and Gearhardt support the role of Biological factors in the determination of gender identities?
Conducted a longitudinal study on 16 XY males with virtually no penis. 2=raised as male and 14=raised as female. 8 of the 'Females' reassigned by the age of 16. Hence suggesting biological factors.
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AO2- Outline the negatives of Reiner and Gearhardt's research.
Longitudinal study= other factors not controlled, there could be other influences like family and environment. Therefore suggesting a reduction in validity.
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When are hormones produced?
Prenatally and during Adolescence (puberty).
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How do hormones influence an individuals gender identity?
Through influencing the development of genitalia and/or the brain.
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How can the role of hormones on genitalia be seen?
By studying individuals who have been exposed prenatally to abnormal hormone levels. (inter-sex).
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What happens to genetic females if they're exposed to high levels of male hormones prenatally?
They can be born with ambiguous genitalia.
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How can individuals be exposed to high levels of male hormone prenatally?
Through the pregnant mother taking hormones via drugs required during pregnancy.
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What did Berenbaum and Bailey suggest?
These women are usually interested in male type activities and are considered 'tom-boyish' due to the influence of male hormones.
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AO2- Outline the fact that Genes and Hormones aren't the whole story.
Hormones can't produce a simple formula for establishing gender. Each individual has a complex and unpredictable combination of Genes, Hormones, sex of rearing and socialisation.
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AO2- What is CAH?
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia- where females have prenatally high levels of male hormones resulting in varying degrees of male genetalia. T he gender assigned is accepted by some and not others. Highlights that gender= Biological.
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AO2- In-turn suggesting that....?
Personal experiences and Socialisation play a key role.
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IDA- Real World Application: International Olympics committee:
1968- excluded all by XX females and XY males. This would mean AIS individuals couldn't compete. Then in 1991- It was determined that genetic sex didn't determine who competed. Now: AIS are only excluded if they're obviously physically male.
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Card 2


How many pairs of chromosomes are there? and how many are responsible for sex?


There are 23 pairs of chromosomes and 1 pair is responsible for sex.

Card 3


What is genetic transmission?


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Card 4


When does sexual development occur pre-natally?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What happens after 3 months of pre-natal development?


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