gender ; cognitive explanations ; gender schema theory

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who developed this?
martin and halverson
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what kind of theory is it like kohlberg's?
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arguing understanding of gender increases with?
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also shares view that children develop iunderstanding by?
actively structuring own learning
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rather than what that SLT suggests?
passively observing and imitating role models
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- gender schema acquired with gender identity
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what are schema?
mental constructs that develop via experience and r used by cog system to org knowledge aroun dparticular topics
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thus gender schema is a generalised representation of what?
everythign we know in relation to gender and gender-appropriate behavour
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accoring tho martin + halverson once child has est gender identity they wil begin to do what?
search env for info that encourages development of gender schema
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at around what age?
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this contrasts kohlberg view that this seeking process begins when?
only after all 3 stages @ gender constancy at age 7
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- schema direct behaviour and self-understanding
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for young children schema are likely to be formed around?
stereotypes like boys play with trucks and girls play with dolls
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and these provide framework that directs?
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as well as?
child's understanding of self
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by 6 child has a rather fixed + stereotypical idea about what?
what is appropriate for gender
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for this reason children are likely to do what with info that doesn't fit schema?
misrememer / disregard
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- ingroups and outgroups
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what is an ingroup?
children of same gender
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and outgroup?
opposite sex
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children tend to have better understanding of which schemas?
those appropriate to own gender or ingroup
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this is consistent with what idea about attention children pay?
pay more attention to info relevant to THEIR gender identity
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its not until around 8 that what ahppens?
develop elaborate shcemas for both genders as opposed to just own
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ingroup identity also serves tp bolster child's level of?
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:) supporting evidenced
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martin and halverson showed children what?
photographs of both gender consistent and inconsistent behaviour
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found what children more likely to remember photos og consistent > inconsistent?
those under 6
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when tested how long later?
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children tended to do what with inconsistent in photos when asked to recall?
change the sex
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this supports what idea?
memory may be distorted to fit with existing schemas
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this supports GST but contradicts?
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:) rigidity of gender beliefs
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theory can account for what about young children?
rigid gender attitudes
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what would happen to information that conflicts with existing schema?
discounted or ignored
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similarly children display what strongly in terms of how process info?
strong in-group bias
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and this is explained by what?
fact children pay more attention to info relevant to own experience
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thus martin and halverson's theory can do what?
explain many aspects of children's thinking about gender
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:) complements kohlberg
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stangor and ruble have suggested what about schema and constanncy?
may describe two different processes
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GST is concerned with how organisation of info affects?
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which explains what?
why gender-inconsistent info is misremembered/forgotten
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gender constancy on the other hand is more linked to what?
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:( overemphasis on role of the individual
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what is likely about importance of schemas and other cog factors?
exaggerated in theory
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as with kohlberg may not be sufficient attention to?
socialisation factors
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for this reason the theory doesn't do what?
explain wWHY gender schemas dev and take form they do
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:( key assumptions not supported
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assumed within HST that should be possible to change children's behaviour how?
change schemas / stereotypes
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in fact v diff to do what?
change behaviour even if beliefs are held
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reflected in what fact about many married couples?
strong views related to equality of sexes and equal divisions of labour
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but this research sugg this rarely has much effec ton?
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Card 2


who developed this?


martin and halverson

Card 3


what kind of theory is it like kohlberg's?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


arguing understanding of gender increases with?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


also shares view that children develop iunderstanding by?


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