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The differences in behaviour and roles that are as a result of societal expectations
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The biological differences between males and females
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Socialisation process
A process by which individuals behaviours are conditioned and shaped
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The individual or entity responsible for the action of a verb process
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The person or entity affected by a material action process
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Assigning a general set of characteristics to a group as a whole, often with negative connotations
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Semantic derogation
The sense of negative meaning or connotation that some lexical items have attached to them
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Semantic deterioration
The process by which negative connotations become attached to lexical items
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Attitudes and assumptions about language that have no real evidence to support them, for example in the assumption that women are generally more chatty or prone to gossip than men
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Marked form
Stands out as being different from a norm. E.g. How young are you
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Unmarked form
The measured norm
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Overt marking
Marking that takes place through affixation/modification. E.g. Adding the suffix -ess for an unmarked item 'manager' turns it into a marked term 'manageress'
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Lakoff's deficit approach
Women's language is centered around domestics, precise colour terms, weak expletives, empty adjectives, tag questions to show uncertainty, euphemisms, hedges and intensifiers
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Tag questions can show more than just speaker uncertainty, it also serves to maintain discussion or be polite
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Tag Question
A group of words that turn a declarative into an interrogative
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Boosting device
A linguistic device used to intensify the force of an expression for added emphasis or power
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Dubois and Crouch
Discovered that men use more tag questions than women
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Zimmerman and West's dominance approach
In mixed sex interactions, males were seen as controlling and dominating through the way they would interrupt female speakers . Furthermore, in interactions between parents and children, parents interrupted and assumed power
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Discovered that women in same sex talk were more collaborative than men in same sex talk. Women aim for politeness strategies in conversation whereas males tended to be less complimentary and supportive
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Discovered that men use insults as a way of expressing solidarity in all male talk
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The biological differences between males and females

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Socialisation process


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