gdr ; dev state 61-85 ; extent eco-stability ; NES + ESS

INTRO ****
FHFG
1 of 86
NES was put under whose direction?
mittag
2 of 86
whose position was?
Head of the Office for Industry and Construction
3 of 86
when was NES implemented?
;63
4 of 86
2 main reasons: 1 - what did new found security following wall gove SED?
chance to adopt + 2 an extent experiment w/ new policies
5 of 86
2- coincided w/ ussr + some other ebloc countries doing what?
relaising ned for reform too promoting innovation and efficiency
6 of 86
ulbricht made it clear what would not accompany eco reforms?
political ones
7 of 86
TIMELINE
DGDFG
8 of 86
when NES lauched?
'63
9 of 86
when gunter mittag appt. head of the office for industry and construction?
'63
10 of 86
when ESS launched?
'68
11 of 86
nationalisation of virtially all remaining private enterprises?
'72
12 of 86
OPEC oil prices increase?
'73
13 of 86
USSR cuts GDR oil exports?
'81
14 of 86
strauss arranges FRG loans?
'83
15 of 86
AIMS OF NES
DFGD
16 of 86
under this gov retained control of?
overall economic planning
17 of 86
but more decision making would be allowed by who?
directors at much lower levels within orgs
18 of 86
also introduced what as key indicator of performance?
profit-making
19 of 86
as means to focus more on producing quality goods and create what?
funds for reinvestment
20 of 86
incentives for workers introduced like what two things for those with higher skill levels?
financial bonuses / increasing wages
21 of 86
NES also aimed focus on what kinds of developments?
scientific / tech
22 of 86
esp in which 3 industries?
chemical / optic / electronic
23 of 86
NES also encouraged who to develop links to improve production?
universities and industry
24 of 86
why did success in this aspect cause problems?
skilled workers overqualidied leading to dissatisfaction + high labour turnover
25 of 86
cahnges implemented deviatend further from central planning than?
what k envisaged for ussr
26 of 86
why may k have tolerated NES even w/o formal approval?
saw as experiment ussr could learn from
27 of 86
as long as what didn't follow?
political concessions
28 of 86
despite having rep for strict ideological dogma what did ulbricht see paramount?
need to beat FRG
29 of 86
what was honecker concerned with about NES?
looseining SED control + straining ussr bond
30 of 86
- NES problems
dgdg
31 of 86
managers often didn't possess what?
appropriate financial skills
32 of 86
and frequent difficulties in?
obtaining necessary resources
33 of 86
opposition to NES by those committed to what?
ideological aims of creating communist state
34 of 86
led to some ppl deliberately sabotaging industrial production by doing what?
breaking amchines / taking extended sick leave
35 of 86
those ideologically committed felt GDR's ideals were being undermined with?
reduced SED ctrl
36 of 86
and felt intro of foinancial incentives would lead to what?
v wealthy individuals
37 of 86
argument wage differentials were unneccessary why?
lack consumer goods so little to purchase
38 of 86
dgd
dfd
39 of 86
given more time these may have been overcome but why nah?
ussr wanted recentralise eco planning
40 of 86
changing ussr attitude partly result of what in the leadership of '64?
k's coup + b replacement
41 of 86
b's beliefs more orthodox and fear in moscow that NES would lead to?
ultra-rich elites
42 of 86
when did brezhnev visit gdr?
dec '65
43 of 86
who was apel?
former nazi/soviet rocket scientist who was Chairman of the State Planning Commision
44 of 86
what did he fail to do?
meet targets
45 of 86
as well as relied on?
wgermnay
46 of 86
and was personally attacked for his?
character
47 of 86
by?
brezhnev
48 of 86
which led to?
apel's political standing weakened / ulbricht faith in him weakened
49 of 86
which resulted in apel doing what?
shooting himself
50 of 86
when?
dec '65
51 of 86
signalling end to any chance of?
continuing NES
52 of 86
THE ESS
DFGD
53 of 86
in direct contradiction to way NES introduced why?
quietly modified and reintroduced centralisation
54 of 86
how did SED justfiy this?
NES was experiment so more communist economic system neccessary
55 of 86
when was ESS announced?
april '67
56 of 86
more centrally planned and extended to include what?
agriculture and trade
57 of 86
restored some price subsidies by state to promote?
key industries
58 of 86
and put more emphasis on developing which three things w/ higher production quotas?
computer tech / chemical / plastic industries
59 of 86
more in line with what?
ussr international mood
60 of 86
when did warsaw pact invade czechoslovakia
'68
61 of 86
which led to brezhnev imposing what on all ebloc?
centralisation of economy / return to more hard-line policies
62 of 86
what did this changing political climate limit?
already limited effectivenessof ESS
63 of 86
why did desired progression in research and development prove difficult to maintain?
GDR didn't have required facilities / experts / financial investments
64 of 86
between '68-'71 GDR economy grew by what %?
5.7%
65 of 86
while western estimated of GNP was what % from '60-'65?
3.5%
66 of 86
to what % '65-'70?
5.1%
67 of 86
industrial productivity rose considerably across all sectors helping improve?
supply consumer goods
68 of 86
industrial production rose what %b '58-'65?
43%
69 of 86
nad why quality trained labour improve?
no more pesky emigration
70 of 86
successes hide the fact that NES + ESS never managed live up to what key aim?
overtake FRG like ulbricht wanted + dinny meet targets
71 of 86
though domestive growht, no real improvements in?
international competitivene
72 of 86
even within demand demand often exceeded supply esp for what reason?
urban renewal used many available resources
73 of 86
NES/ESS should be seen not radical departures from orthodox planned economy but instead?
attempt to make function more efficiently
74 of 86
economic authority where?
firmly in hands of party
75 of 86
and this weakened ability fo reforms to do what?
increase initiative + efficiency @ local level
76 of 86
desire to overtake FRG undermined which poorly undermined thing?
consumer goods meaning ppl weren't happy for the winter
77 of 86
struggled on ineffectively until what in '68?
warsaw pact invasion of czechoslovakia
78 of 86
which led to brezhnev imposing what?
centralisation of economy + hard-line policies
79 of 86
and this changing poliical climate meant?
end to ESS
80 of 86
when did ulbricht go on hooliday?
sept '70
81 of 86
and honecker saw this as opportunity and inro politburo resolution that did what?
reversed narrow emphasis on economy + increased centrl planning (scrap ESS)
82 of 86
in '70 GDR replaced Poland as what?
USSR main trading partner
83 of 86
and GDR held what position in top ten trading nations in world?
10
84 of 86
in spite of what post-war?
soviet looting / reparations
85 of 86
GDR also proudly noted this was delivered without resorting to what like FRG had for 'economic miracle'?
Marshall Aid
86 of 86

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

NES was put under whose direction?

Back

mittag

Card 3

Front

whose position was?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

when was NES implemented?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

2 main reasons: 1 - what did new found security following wall gove SED?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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