Functionalism

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  • Created by: ncs1997
  • Created on: 01-05-15 18:13
In what 3 ways does Parson identify society as the same as a biological organism?
System - both self-regulating systems of inter-related interdependantparts. System needs - if the needs aren't met, the system will fail. Functions - the contributions a part of a system makes to keep the system working.
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How does Parsons argue social order is possible?
It's achieved through aa shared culture or a central value system that is agreed upon by the whole society. This agreement is known as the value consensus.
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What 2 mechanisms does Parsons claim ensure individuals conform to shared norms and meet the systems needs?
Socialisation - through this process individuals internalise the system's norms and values and society becomes part of their personality. Social control - positive sanctions reward conformity whilst negative ones punish deviance.
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How can Parson's model of the social system be described using 'building blocks'?
Individual actions - governed by specific norms - groups make status-roles - groups make institutions - groups make sub-systems - make the social system as a whole.
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What are 4 basic needs of the societal system? (AGIL)
Adaptation - meets material needs through economic sub-system. Goal attainment - sets goals and allocates resources through the political system. Integration - parts must work together (sub-systems of media, religion and education). Latency - maintai
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What are the differences between traditional and modern society?
Traditional - ascribed status, diffuseness, treat people differently, immediate gratification, collective orientation. Modern - achievement, specificity, everyone treated the same, deferred gratification, self-orientation.
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How does Parsons claim society changes from one type to the other?
It’s a gradual, evolutionary process. Structural differentiation - a gradual procession which separate institutions develop from one. Dynamic equilibrium - When a change occurs in one part, a change occurs somewhere else as well.
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In what 3 ways does Merton internally criticise Parsons?
1.Parsons assumes everything in society is indispensable, Merton argues functional alternatives. 2.He assumes everything is a unit, Merton claims somethings are distant from one another. 3.Parsons assumes everything performs a positive function.
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How does Merton define Manifest and Latent functions?
Manifest - the intended function of an action. Latent - the unintended function of an action.
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What are the logical criticisms?
Logically, cause must come before effect, but functionalists use the teleological approach - things exist because of their function. It's unscientific because it isn't falsifiable. E.g. deviance is both good and bad for society can't be disproved.
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What are the conflict perspective criticisms?
Marxists - society isn't a whole and is based on exploitation and divided into classes. Stability is the result of force. Functionalism is a conservative ideology that maintains the status quo.
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What are the action perspective criticisms?
Dennis Wrong - functionalism has a deterministic view. It also reifies society, action perspectives say that this is wrong and instead only the individual can construct their own social reality.
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What are the postmodernist criticisms?
Functionalists assume society is stale and orderly and so can't account for diversity and instability. It's a mera-narrative perspective, but postmodernists argue an overall theory is no longer possible because of increasing fragmentation of society.
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Card 2

Front

It's achieved through aa shared culture or a central value system that is agreed upon by the whole society. This agreement is known as the value consensus.

Back

How does Parsons argue social order is possible?

Card 3

Front

Socialisation - through this process individuals internalise the system's norms and values and society becomes part of their personality. Social control - positive sanctions reward conformity whilst negative ones punish deviance.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Individual actions - governed by specific norms - groups make status-roles - groups make institutions - groups make sub-systems - make the social system as a whole.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Adaptation - meets material needs through economic sub-system. Goal attainment - sets goals and allocates resources through the political system. Integration - parts must work together (sub-systems of media, religion and education). Latency - maintai

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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