Functionalism, anomie and strain

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 19-04-16 12:10
What is the functionalist paradigm?
Understands society as inter-related parts that affect each other to provide exxtensive moral consensus (e.g. human body)
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What was Durkheim's belief about sociology?
It is a 'science of institutions' that should adopt scientific research methods
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Name some of Durkheim's work.
The Division of Labour - impact of industrialism. Suicide - catholic and protestant rates. Elemenetary Forms of Religious Life - understand religion as social phenomenon
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What were Durkheim's beliefs that showed the functionalist paradigm?
1. society needs social control and regulation to prevent chaos, crime and anomie. 2. societies are fragmented and only held together by shared values and common symbols
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What were the 5 key concepts of Durkheim?
Social facts; social solidarity; collective conscience; integration and regulation; anomie
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What are social facts?
something society believes in but can't see that exerts control of people's behaviour (e.g. marriage)
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What is social solidarity?
glue that binds and brings different members of society together
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What is mechanical social solidarity?
primitive societies that organise social order by similarities and maintain it by harsh sanctions. Low division of power means no individuality.
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What is organic social solidarity?
Modern insdustralised societies organise social order by differences and maintain it by regulating interactions. High division of power means acceptance of differences.
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What is division of labour?
Different parts of society; factory line concpet
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What is collective conscience?
common beliefs and values shared by citizens of a society
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What is integration and regulation?
Integration: Alturism - part of society and selfless. Egoism - not part of society. Regulation: Anomie- normlessness, no social direction. Fatalism: blocked opportunities, can't get what want
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What is anomie?
Sense of normlessness caused by sudden social change and regulation breaks down (e.g. war in industrialised societies)
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What are some criticisms of Durkheim's anomie?
No distinction between egoistic and anomic suicide. Do all crimes have functional aspect? Empirical nature of collective conscience? Lack of focus on individual factors
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Is crime ever useful?
Confirms cultural values. Response clarifies moral boundaries. Response promotes social unity. Encourages social change.
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How did Merton build on Durkheim's work?
Built upon concept of anomie to explain social upheavals in US
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What was Merton's strain theory?
social structures cause some people to feel strain to point they have to engage in non-conformist behaviour (crime). Rejects individualism. Anomie always present. If dream overemphasised strain can cause anomie.
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What are the 5 modes of adaptation?
Conformity; Innovation; Ritualism; Retreatism; Rebellion
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What are some criticisms of Merton's strain theory?
Can't explain occasional deviant behaviour. He changes the meaning of anomie. He assumes we all share same goals and values.
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Compare Merton and Durkheim.
Merton anomie is always present Durkheim sudden change. Merton desires socially constructed Durkheim natural. Merton anomie desires not met Durkheim lack regulation of desires. Merton impact lower class Durkheim whole society
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Card 2

Front

It is a 'science of institutions' that should adopt scientific research methods

Back

What was Durkheim's belief about sociology?

Card 3

Front

The Division of Labour - impact of industrialism. Suicide - catholic and protestant rates. Elemenetary Forms of Religious Life - understand religion as social phenomenon

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

1. society needs social control and regulation to prevent chaos, crime and anomie. 2. societies are fragmented and only held together by shared values and common symbols

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Social facts; social solidarity; collective conscience; integration and regulation; anomie

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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