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  • Created on: 17-05-14 16:12
Essay Structure- How Successful Was Louis XVIII?
Introduction, Political Policies, Religious Policies, Social and Economic Policies, Turning Point, Conclusion
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What were Louis XVIII's Successful Political Policies? (5)
Appointed capable and popular chief ministers (Decazes + Richelieu), Tried to work with parliament (Accepted the constitutional monarchy, Resisted pressure from Ultras 1816-1820, Aix-La-Chapelle (Re-join Powers), Supported Spanish King against rebels
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What were Louis XVIII's Unsuccessful Political Policies? (5)
Chambre Introuvable 1814-15, The White Terror 1815, The Hundred Days 1815, Put nobles in charge of the household guards, Replaced tricolour with the Bourbon flag
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Did Louis XVIII have successful Religious Policies?
Failure Returned education to the church in 1824 (under Charles’ influence)
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Did Louis XVIII have successful Social and Economic Policies?
Success- 1818 indemnities for the 2nd restoration are paid- Economic growth
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What caused the turning point in Louis XVIII's reign?
Assassination of the Duc De Berri 1820, led to Double Vote 1820, Louis XVIII too ill and weak to prevent ultra backlash
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Essay Structure- Assess The Reasons For The 1830 Revolution?
Introduction, Long-Term Political Policies, Short-Term Political Policies, Religious Policies, Social and Economic Policies, Personality, Opposition, Conclusion
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What were Charles X's Long-Term Political Policies?
Polarisation of politics, Belief In Divine right, Appointed unpopular chief ministers, 1820 Double Vote, Corruption of the electorate
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What were Charles X's Short-Term Political Policies?
Appointed Polignac chief minister 1827, 1929 Charles, taxes refused by some deputies, made speech attacking liberals, Vote of no confidence- 221, The 4 Ordinances, Army in Algeria, National Guard disbanded (Bonapartist fear), King left unprotected
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What were The 4 Ordinances?
Freedom of press suspended, Chamber of Deputies dissolved, Parliament would reassemble after elections, Electorate would only be those with the double vote, Directly attacked the Charter, Charles was ill-advised
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What effect did Charles X's short-term political policies have?
Charles X lost the support of the bourgeoisie who allowed a regime change to take place
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Why were Charles X's religious policies such a failure?
‘The Priestly Plot’’/ ‘The Jesuit Threat’/ ‘The Conspiracy of the Congregation’, 1824 under Charles X’s influence, Education was returned to the Church, Missionaries travelled the streets of France preaching, The Law of Sacrilege
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Why were Charles X's Social and Economic Policies such a failure?
Artisans only want food and the right to work, Laissez-faire, Economic Crisis with bad harvests 1827-1830
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What Republican Opposition did Charles X face?
Newspapers set up e.g. The National, Secret Societies (Aid-Toi, Charbonnerie)
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What Liberal Opposition did Charles X face?
Wanted a stable government and economic growth, Priority was The Charter not The King, Would defend press censorship and the right to vote, Disagreed with Charles’ choice in Chief Ministers, Vote of no confidence
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What Bonapartist Opposition did Charles X face?
Not a threat, Louis Napoleon exiled and other Bonapartists still feared the consequences of The White Terror
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What Orleanist Opposition did Charles X face?
An alternative monarchy
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What Anticlerical Opposition did Charles X face?
Questioned king’s motives and aims for the constitution
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Essay Structure- How Successful Was Louis Philippe's Domestic Policy?
Introduction, Aims, Political Policies, Religious Policies, Social and Economic Policies, Personality, Opposition, Conclusion
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What were Louis Philippe's aims in domestic policy?
Laissez-Faire, Defend the 1830 Charter, Keep France secure, safe and prosperous
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What were Louis Philippe's successful political policies?
Stood by the 1830 Charter, Adopted the tricolour flag- Spirit of the revolution, Chose capable minister in 1830s which reflected the chamber of deputies
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What were the failures of Louis Philippe's political policies?
- The reintroduction of censorship, Did not change with the will of the people, Denied the extension of the vote, Party of Resistance not the Party of Movement- Became more politically involved in the 1840s, Supported Guizot 1840s (close friends)
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What were Louis Philippe's religous policies?
Successful- Catholicism made the religion of the majority not the country (Liberal)
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What were the failures of Louis Philippe's Social and Economic Policies?
Economic Crisis, Artisans expected social reform (work and food) and yet only in times of disturbance were the prices of food reduced
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What were the issues of the Economic Crisis 1848?
Urbanisation had led to Mass unemployment, Overpopulation, Cholera 1832, 1847, 1848, Migrant and Native tensions in cities, Competition for work, Bad sanitation
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What were Louis Philippe's successful social and economic policies?
Church control over education taken away from the church, Railways provided (temporary) work
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Why was Louis Philippe the 'chosen' king?
.
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What Republican opposition did Louis Philippe face?
Blanqui Revolution 1839, Funerals + Banquets, Guizot shuts Banquet 1848 triggered revolution, Secret Societies, Newspapers, Massacre of Rue Transnonain, David vs. Daumier, Gargantua, La poire, 2nd Rebellion in Lyon, Mutual Aid Societies
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What Liberal opposition did Louis Philippe face?
Supported the expansion of suffrage, Guizot was disliked by the majority, yet Louis Philippe did not dismiss him
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What Legitimist opposition did Louis Philippe face?
Duchess of Berry Coup D’etat- failed
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What Bonapartist opposition did Louis Philippe face?
Louis Napoleon Coup D’etats Boulogne 1840 and Salsbourg 1836, Revival of Napoleon I, Return of the Ashes 1840, Palace of Versailles, Arc de Triomphe 1836, Napoleon I statue on Verndome column 1833
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Essay Structure- Assess The Reasons For The 1848 Revolution?
Introduction, Political Policies, Economic Crisis, Personality/Dotage, Opposition, Conclusion
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Essay Structure- How Successful Was Louis Philippe's Foreign Policy?
Introduction, Aims, Successes 1841-1846, Tahiti 1844, Algeria, Nemesis In Foreign Policy Was Palmerston, Belgium 1830, Mahmet Ali, Spain, Conclusion
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What were Louis Philippe's aims in foreign policy?
Expand natural boundaries, Cautious of Foreign powers not the legitimate king, Wary of policemen of Europe (Austria and Russia)- suppressed revolutionaries, Avoid a General European war, French people want glory- look through rose-tinted spectacles
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What were Louis Philippe's successes in foreign policy 1841-1846?
1841 Government under Sir Robert Peel was willing to work with France (5 years), Royal family visits between Britain and France
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Was Tahiti a success or failure 1844?
Success as it was resolved peacefully with Britain, failure as the french people felt betrayed by their king, bowing to the British
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Was Algeria a success or failure?
Success as Algeria was colonised and it benefited the economy, failure as the french people were disinterested as it was not involved with Europe
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Was Belgium 1830 a success or a failure?
Success as France placed a princess on the Belgian throne, Failure as Belgium had requested Louis-Philippe's second son as their king, however Louis-Philippe bowed down to the British and let them give the Belgians a british noble as king
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Why was the Mehmet Ali Crisis such a failure?
Upset British trade + balance of power, Thiers CM + dealt with issue, Thiers supports Ali, Policy failed- Palm's gun boat diplomacy, Britain + Russia defeat Ali, Thiers says war, Palm called bluff, Thiers dismissed, French Humiliation, King blamed
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Were the spanish marriages a success or a failure?
Spain in Frances sphere of influence, appeared to be a success as Louis Philippe organised marriages, however planning did not work, Isabella had an unexpected child
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Essay Structure- How Did Louis Napoleon Come To Dominate The 2nd Republic?
Introduction, Failures Of The Provisional Government, Weak Opposition, 1848 Elections, Personality, Development Of Bonapartism, Religious Policies, Political Policies, 3rd Coup D’etat, Conclusion
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What were the failures of the provisional government 1848?
120,000 had The Dole, 50,000 left unprovided for, Elections for constituent assembly held Easter Sunday- Clergy influence- against red republicans- conservative majority-Napoleon did well-National workshops planned, few open, Workshops shut, June Day
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Why was General Cavaignac weak opposition?
‘Butcher Of June’, Popular with conservative landowners for crushing republican uprising in June 1848, he didn't take military advantage to control the country, If he won election revolution would be inevitable- people wanted to prevent Terror
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Why was Lamartine weak opposition?
Declared the republic, Formed the provisional government, Reputation suffered as a result of his involvement with the provisional government and its failure to improve the economic crisis- seen as too idealist rather than functional/practical
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Why was Ledru Rollin weak opposition?
Red Republican, Demanded the right to work and universal male suffrage, popular in cities, hated by rural majority
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How did Louis Napoleon's personality help him?
Sense of destiny due to the lecagy of his uncle, Whilst in Prison he wrote the Extinction du Pauperisme- State Intervention- 100 years ahead of the times- and Des Idees Napoleoniennes in 1839- meritocracy- Thiers thought he could manipulate him
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What was the development of Bonapartism and why was it important?
Idees Napoleoniennes 1839, Importance of name, Political campaign, revival of Napoleon I under Louis-Philippe's reign
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What successful religious policies did Louis Napoleon have?
Loi Falloux, clergy education and support for the pope against rebels
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Why were Louis Napoleons political policies successful?
‘All things to all men’, Extinction du Pauperisme 1844, Distanced himself from unpopular legislation, Crushed opposition- disassociated himself from red republicans, Newspapers had to pay for a royal licence- Repressive 3 strike warning system
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Why was the Third Coup D'etat allowed in 1851?
Cohesion due to a social fear and due to the mid century crisis, want of strong leadership
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Essay Structure- How Successful Was Napoleon III's Domestic Policy?
Introduction, Aims and Personality, 1-State Intervention (Social and Economic Policies), 2-Ruling By The Will Of The People (Political Policies, Religious Policies, Move from authoritarian to liberal), 3-Glory (A more ambitious Foreign policy, Legacy
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What were the aims of Napoleon III's domestic policy?
State Intervention, Ruling By The Will Of The People, Glory, The Empire Is Peace, Influence abroad and prosperity at home
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Did Napoleon III achieve his aims in state intervention?
Extinction du pauperisme 1846, majority of Napoleon’s ventures were only partially achieved
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How successful was the reconstruction of cities?
Reconstruction of cities, Generated work, Sewer systems dealt with sanitation-Boulevards to crush uprisings, Work only temporary, Sewers dysfunctional, Boulevards a façade- people moved into suburbs conditions were awful, Haussmann was corrupt
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How successful were Napoleon III's financial reforms?
Investment banks- Credit Mobilier, Invested in businesses, Railways and Suez Canal, Economic growth due to modern transport infrastructure, economic growth was worldwide in any case, Bankrupt American War + investment in Railways, Free Trade fail
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How did Napoleon III plan to rule by the will of the people?
‘satisfy the interests of the masses-secure the loyalty of the upper classes’, a ‘juggling act’, Authoritarian rule with plebiscites, Maintain popularity- avoiding unpopular policies, Silent catholic majority, Triggered authoritarian to liberal
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What did Napoleon III mean by The Empire Is Peace?
Elimination of party divisions, Peace abroad and at home, Repression, Red Republicanism
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Essay Structure- Was Napoleon II's Reign Liberal Or Authoritarian?
Introduction, 3 Main Stages Towards A Liberal Empire, 1860, 1867, 1869-1870, Conclusion
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For what reasons did Napoleon III's empire become more liberal 1860?
Social order had been secured so Napoleon could begin the process of liberalisation, Foreign policy in Italy – reflected in 1863 elections- had upset the liberals due to going behind nationalists backs- upset clergy as the pope had lost states
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For what reasons did Napoleon III's empire become more liberal 1867?
1861 Ollivier (republican) announces willingness to create a liberal empire, Emperor promises financial reforms, 1864 Thiers (part of the legislative assembly)calls for ‘the four necessary liberties, Workers receive the right to strike
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For what reasons did Napoleon III's empire become more liberal 1869-70?
1869 elections- Losing city support (Paris Republican city), Republican rise- propaganda- promise of social reform, Credit Mobilier bankrupt, Haussmann corruption, Free trade failed, Mexico disaster, Austro-Prussian war, Assassination Attempt
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What changed were made in 1860?
Legislative Assembly were allowed to discuss government, 1861 The Legislative Chamber could suggest changed to the budget once a year, 1863 The press could print parliamentary debates in full- giving the opposition a voice, tolerance
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What changed were made in 1867?
The Legislative Chamber could now question the government ministers at any time, Allowing the opposition to have a voice, Newspapers no longer needed a royal licence
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What changed were made in 1869-70?
public meetings allowed, Legislative Chamber could pass laws, Napoleon III unlikely to refuse a law, Legislative Chamber could dismiss ministers with permission of Emperor, Ollivier Chief minister, Napoleon III + Legislative Chamber had to agree
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Essay Structure- How Successful Was Napoleon III's Foreign Policy?
Introduction, Aims, Algeria, Crimea, Italy, Mexico, Austro-Prussian War, Franco-Prussian War, Conclusion
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What were Napoleon III's aims in Foreign Policy?
‘The Empire Is Peace’, Wanted to be a diplomatic mediator, Glory without war, Receive rewards for diplomacy, Achieve France’s natural boundaries, Undermine the Vienna Settlement
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Was Crimea a success or a failure 1854?
Congress Of Paris ending the war, Diplomatic glory for Napoleon, France had fought the war less disastrously than the rest of Europe, Napoleon seen as the most important statesman of Europe
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What was the Turning Point in Napoleon III's Foreign Policy and why was it a success/failure?
Italy 1859- Battles in Magenta and Solferino- glory!, Villafranca peace treaty, A success or a failure, France gain Nice and Savoy, Upset Italians as they were not consulted, Upset Liberals as Napoleon had supported the Pope and not the nationalists
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Was Mexico 1862-1866 a success or a failure?
Disaster, Britain felt betrayed as the war aim had originally been to deal with Juarez killing of catholics, France could not cope with Mexico’s guerrilla warfare and after four years of war pulled out, They left the Austrian prince to be slaughtered
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Was the Austro-Prussian War a succes or a failure 1866?
Napoleons dealings with Bismarck were handed to Britain, This dissolved any remaining relations with Britain as Napoleon had deceived them too many a time
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Was the Franco-Prussian a succes or a failure 1870?
Failure- Spain, Hohenzollern candidate, The ‘Em’s’ Telegram, Sedan defeat , French humiliation
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What were Louis XVIII's Successful Political Policies? (5)

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Appointed capable and popular chief ministers (Decazes + Richelieu), Tried to work with parliament (Accepted the constitutional monarchy, Resisted pressure from Ultras 1816-1820, Aix-La-Chapelle (Re-join Powers), Supported Spanish King against rebels

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What were Louis XVIII's Unsuccessful Political Policies? (5)

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Card 4

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Did Louis XVIII have successful Religious Policies?

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Card 5

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Did Louis XVIII have successful Social and Economic Policies?

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