Eye Witness Testimony

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What is EWT?
The evidence provided by people who witnessed a particular event. It relies on RECALL- description of eye colour, hair, height and crime scenes i.e. what happened.
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Who did a test on misleading information?
Loftus and Palmer carried out two experiments in their study
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What was Loftus and Palmers method? EXP1
Showed groups a film of multiple car crashes. Asked 'How fast do you think the cars were going when they...' (hit/collided/smashed/bumped/contacted)
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What were the results of EXP1? (loftus and palmer)
Smashed estimated the highest speed at average of 41 mph. Contacted gave the lowest speed estimate 30ish mph
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What was Loftus and Palmers second experiment?
The groups were split into 3. Each given three seperate verbs (smashes/hit/control group no leading q) A week later they were asked if they saw any broken glass
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What were the results of Loftus and Palmers second experiment?
Although there was no broken glass in the film PP were more likely to say they'd seen broken glass in the 'smashed' condition
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What do the results of Loftus and Palmer show?
Leading questions can affect the ACCURACY of peoples memory in an event
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What similar study was done?
Loftus and Zannishowed PP a film of a car accident and then asked for either did you see THE or A broken headlight. 7% said yes for A and 17% for THE.
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What factors can affect EWT?
Age and Anxiety
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Who investigated Age in afffecting Accuracy of EWT? What did they do?
Valentine and Coxan studied 3 groups (in age order). They watched a video of a kidnapping and were asked a series of non leading and leading questions
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What are the results of Valentine and Coxan?
Both elederly and young children gave wrong answers to the non-leading questions and children were more easily mislead by misleading questions. So age has an affect on EWT
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Who did a weapon focus test?
Loftus (1979)
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What is the effect of anxiety on EWT
A little bit of anxiety may increase accuracy of memory but too much may distort it
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What was Lofus' method?
INDEPENDANT group design, PP heard a nearby discussion (getting increasingly heated) Condition one= man came out with a pen covered in grease. Condition two= man came out with knife covered in blood.
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What are some of the different stages in EWT?
- report everything -recall in different orders -different perspectives
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Card 2

Front

Who did a test on misleading information?

Back

Loftus and Palmer carried out two experiments in their study

Card 3

Front

What was Loftus and Palmers method? EXP1

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the results of EXP1? (loftus and palmer)

Back

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Card 5

Front

What was Loftus and Palmers second experiment?

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