Evolutionary Explanations of Human Aggression

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  • Created by: Emilyio
  • Created on: 17-04-16 21:55
(A01) Daly & Wilson 1988
claim that men have evolved different strategies to deter their female partners from committing adultery. These may be vigilance or violence, but are both fueled by male-sexual-jealousy- adaptation evolved to deal with threats of paternal uncertainty
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(A01) What is cuckoldry?
Reproductive cost inflicted on a man as a result of his partners infidelity. The consequence will be a man unwittingly invest his resources in offspring that are not his own.
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(A01) Cuckoldry & sexual jealousy
The adaptive functions of sexual jealousy would have been to deter a mate from sexual infidelity, thereby minimising the risk of cuckoldry.
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(A01) Mate retention - Buss 1988
suggests that males have a number of strategies that have evolved specifically for purpose of keeping a mate. these= direct guarding and negative inducements.
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(A01) What is direct guarding?
restricting their partners autonomy
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(A01) What are negative inducements?
in the form of violence or threats of violence, those who are percieved by their partner to be threatening infidelity are at risk of more violence.
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(A01) Dobas & Dobash 1984
Studies of battered women have shown that in majoruty of samples, women cite extreme jealous on the part of husbands/boyfriends as the key cause of the violence directed towards them.
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(A01) Sexual Jealous & Extreme Violence - Daly et al 1982
Male sexual jealous is the single most common motivation for killings in domestic abuse in the US
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(A01) Sexual Jealousy and extreme violence - Dell 1984
concluded that sexual jealousy accounted for 17% of all cases of murder in the UK. Men are predominantly the perpetrators and the victims. Summary of 8 studies of same-sex couples involving love triangles. 92% male-male. 8%were female-female
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(A01) What is infidelity?
voluntary sexual relationships between an married individual and somebody who is not their spouse.
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(A01) Daly et al 1982
research suggests that the detection or suspicion of infideity is a key predictor of partner violence
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(A01) 2006 BBC online survey, The love map
found that men are more likely to engage in extra-marital affairs that women, it is also discovered that 1/10 women admitted to being unfaithful to their husbands.
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(A01) Sexual Coercion - Goetz et al 2008
a consequence of mens perceptions or suspicions of their wives' sexual infidelity is sexual coercion or partner ****
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(A01) Sexual Coercion - Camilleri 2004
found that sexual assault of a female by her male partner was directly linked with the percieved risk of her infidelity.
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(A01) Sexual Coercion - Shields & Hanneke 1983
also found that female victims of partner **** were more likely to have reported engaging in extra-marital affairsthan women who had not been ****d by their partner.
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(A01) Sexual Coercion -
Sexual infidelity by a woman may lead to pregnancy. - when the child is born, her longterm mate is at risk of cuckoldry. The function of violence is therefore directed towards her abdomin in order of termination.
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(A01) What is Uxorocide?
wife killing
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(A01) Uxorocide - Shackleford et al 2000
Men can guard against their partners infidelity either by conferring benefits or infliciting costs, like violence. As not all men have resources for benefits, some men are prone for vioence or threat of violence
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(A01) Uxorocide - Daly & Wilson 1988
death of the parnter from violence may be an unintended outcome of evolutionary adaptation that was designed for control rather than death
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(A02) Shackleford et al 2005 (findings)
surveyes 461 and 560 women in US. All committed, heterosexual relationships. Male pp's answered Q's about use of mate retention and were assessed on how often they performed each of 26 different types of violent acts against them.
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(A02) Shackleford et al 2005 (findings)
men use 2 broad types of retention technique (intersexual negative inducements and direct guarding) was + correlated with their violent scores.
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(A02) Shackleford et al 2005 (findings)
Additionally, emotional manipulation (saying they'd kill themself if they left) predicted violence.
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(A02) Shackleford et al 2005
used Survey techniques. Social desireability bias will most likely occur, especially in sensitive areas, like violence against a spouse.
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(A02) Jealousy - Research support - Buss & Shackleford 1997
found that men who suspected that their wives maight be unfaithful over the next year exacted greater punishment for a known or suspected infidelity than men who did not anticipate furture infidelities.
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(A02) Practical applications
use of particular tactics of mate retention used by males can be an early indicator of violence against female partner. Findings suggest that friends & family can be alerted to danger signs.
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(A02) INFIDELITY -support, Camilleri 2004
The risk of a partners infidelity predicts sexual coercion among males but not females. Significant because males are at risk of cuckoldry, females arent
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(A02) INFIDELEITY - support, Camilleri & Quinsey 2009
found that men guilty of ****** their partners were more likely to have experienced cuckoldry risks prior to their offence compared to men convicted of non-sexual partner abuse.
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(A02) INFIDELITY - Birch & Gallop 2010
found that women abused when pregnant were more likely to be carrying the child of another man.
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(A02) INFIDELITY support - Valladares et al 2005
A Nicaraguan study found that half of a sample of pregnant women suffered abuse directly to their abdomen, specifically designed to increase the probability of aborting the foetus.
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(A02) INFIDELITY - Buss & Shackleford 1997
suggest that it cannot account for why different males, when faced with their partners infidelity respond in different ways. Some resort to aggressive mate-retention, others to murder and others to drink.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Reproductive cost inflicted on a man as a result of his partners infidelity. The consequence will be a man unwittingly invest his resources in offspring that are not his own.

Back

(A01) What is cuckoldry?

Card 3

Front

The adaptive functions of sexual jealousy would have been to deter a mate from sexual infidelity, thereby minimising the risk of cuckoldry.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

suggests that males have a number of strategies that have evolved specifically for purpose of keeping a mate. these= direct guarding and negative inducements.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

restricting their partners autonomy

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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