Epistemology

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  • Created by: Twestern
  • Created on: 14-05-18 21:55
What is epistemology?
The study of knowledge
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What are the two sides?
Rationalism versus Empiricism
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What is rationalism?
Gaining knowledge from reason and a priori knowledge, this is discarding the validity of sense experience. Deduction and past lives
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Descartes rationalism
'cogito ergo sum'. we cannot trust sense experience as it could be the evil demon deceiving us e.g. candle wax analogy
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Plato
We are born with innate knowledge of the realm of the forms e.g. Meno slave boy
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Chomsky L.A.D.
We are born with the innate skills to learn new languages
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Spinoza
'true virtue is life under the direction of reason' - 'i call him free who is led solely by reason'
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Satre
'we are born with a God shaped hole inside of us' showing that we are born with innate knowledge of God
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Examples of past life experiences
Show that we have innate knowledge that is transferred from life to life e.g. samsara
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Explain Berkeley's empiricism:
'esse est percipi'- to be is to be perceived- God is the ultimate perceiver who causes our existence
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Empiricism
We gain knowledge of the world through sense experience. A posteriori
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David Hume
Stated that it was the most reliable form of knowledge becuase it is based upon observation rather than unproveable truths as shown through his Fork
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John Locke
Tabula Rasa- we are all born with no knowledge i.e. a blank slate
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Aristotle
Believes that we gain knowledge through oberservation and experience and that Plato's theory is based upon a lack of evidence
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John Watson Behaviourism
Explains that we can be 'socially conditioned' to be afraid of everything, and gives the example of the child and the rat
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what is synthetic?
looks to empirical evidence for their verification
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What is induction?
A method of reasoning where a conclusion is reached through linking reasoning of cause and effect
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Explain Hume's fork
Assesses rationalism versus empiricism. Rationalism (relations of ideas, a priori) comes from the world, so not useful. whereas empirical knowledge is based on observation of cause and effect= a posteriori matters of fact= truth
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Weakness of Berkeley:
Things don't come in and out of existence when they are not being perceived
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Rationalism versus Empiricism

Back

What are the two sides?

Card 3

Front

Gaining knowledge from reason and a priori knowledge, this is discarding the validity of sense experience. Deduction and past lives

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

'cogito ergo sum'. we cannot trust sense experience as it could be the evil demon deceiving us e.g. candle wax analogy

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

We are born with innate knowledge of the realm of the forms e.g. Meno slave boy

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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