Enzymes and Digestion

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Proteins
Proteins are made from long chains of smaller molecules called amino acids. These long chains are folded into particular shapes. This is important in relation to how antibodies and enzymes work.
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Enzymes
Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are optimum temperatures and pH values at which their activity is greatest. Enzymes are also proteins. If the shape of an enzyme changes, it may no longer work (it is said to have been 'denatured').
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Catalysts
substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being used up. Enzymes are proteins folded into complex shapes that allow smaller molecules to fit into them. The place where these substrate molecules fit is called the active site
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Enzyme
Reaction catalysed
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Amylase
Starch → sugars. Found in Salivary glands, pancreas, small intestine.
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Protease
Proteins → amino acids. Found in Stomach, pancreas, small intestine.
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Lipase
Lipids → fatty acids + glycerol. Found in Pancreas, small intestine.
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Stomach acid
The stomach produces hydrochloric acid. This helps to begin digestion, and it kills many harmful microorganisms that might have been swallowed along with the food. The enzymes in the stomach work best in acidic conditions -in other words, at a low pH
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Bile
After the stomach, food travels to the small intestine. bile neutralises the acid to provide the alkaline conditions needed in the small intestine. Produced in liver and stored in the gall bladder.
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Protease uses in industry
Used to pre-digest proteins during the manufacture of baby foods
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Lipase
Used - together with protease - in biological detergents to break down (digest) the substances in stains into smaller, water soluble substances
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Carbohydrase
Used to convert starch syrup, which is relatively cheap, into sugar syrup, which is more valuable - for example, as an ingredient in sports drinks
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Isomerase
Used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup - fructose is sweeter than glucose, so it can be used in smaller amounts in slimming foods
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Card 2

Front

Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are optimum temperatures and pH values at which their activity is greatest. Enzymes are also proteins. If the shape of an enzyme changes, it may no longer work (it is said to have been 'denatured').

Back

Enzymes

Card 3

Front

substances that increase the rate of chemical reactions without being used up. Enzymes are proteins folded into complex shapes that allow smaller molecules to fit into them. The place where these substrate molecules fit is called the active site

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Reaction catalysed

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Starch → sugars. Found in Salivary glands, pancreas, small intestine.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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