HideShow resource information
what are protein molecules made of?
long chains of amino acids
1 of 40
why are the long chains folded?
to produce a specific shape.
2 of 40
what does the shape depend on?
its function
3 of 40
what can proteins be?
4 of 40
what proteins control chemical reactions in cells?
5 of 40
what are enzymes?
biological catalysts
6 of 40
what do they do?
speed up reactions
7 of 40
what is the area in the shape of the enzyme called?
active site
8 of 40
what does the active site do to a substrate during a reaction?
it is held in the active site either to be broken down or connected onto another molecule.
9 of 40
enzymes can:
build large molecules from many smaller ones;break down large molecules into smaller ones; change on emolecule into another one
10 of 40
when do reactions take place faster?
when its warmer
11 of 40
describe what the molecules do at higher temperatures.
at higher temps the molecules move around more quickly and so collide with each other more often and with more energy.
12 of 40
what happend to the enzyme if it gets too hot?
enzyme stops working (denatures)
13 of 40
active site changes shape
14 of 40
an enzyme can also denature if...
conditions are too alkaline/acidic
15 of 40
where are digestive enzymes produced?
specialised cells (glands) and in the lining of the gut
16 of 40
describe digestion.
the breakdown of large insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules
17 of 40
what is amylase?
a carbohydrase
18 of 40
where is amylase produced?
salivary glands'small intestine;pancreas
19 of 40
what does amylase do?
cataluses the digestion of starch into sugars
20 of 40
mouth and small intestine
21 of 40
where is protease produced?
stomach; small intestine;pancreas
22 of 40
what does protease do?
catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amino acids.
23 of 40
stomach and small intestine
24 of 40
where is lipase produced?
pancreas and small intestine
25 of 40
what does it do?
catalysis the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol
26 of 40
what conditions does protease work best in?
27 of 40
which enzymes work best in alkaline conditions?
amylase and lipase
28 of 40
what does the liver produce?
29 of 40
where is bile stored?
in the gall bladder
30 of 40
where is bile squirted into?
the small intestine
31 of 40
to neutralise the stomach (hydrochloric) acid
32 of 40
what enzymes do biological detergents contain?
protease and lipase
33 of 40
what do they do?
digest food stains
34 of 40
what do proteases do in some baby foods
predigest proteins
35 of 40
what is isomerase used to convert glucose syrup into?
fructose syrup
36 of 40
what is special about fructose syrup?
it is much sweeter, so less is needed (less fattening)
37 of 40
what are carbohydrases used for in foods?
converting starch into sugar
38 of 40
advantages of using enzymes in industry:
very effective at removing stains;(washing powders)used at lower temperatures - saves energy and reduces costs; used in medicine to control/cure didease
39 of 40
disadvantages of using enzymes in industry:
allergic reactions to washing powders; enzymes may enter waterways via sewage system; industrial enzymes costly to produce;denature at high temperatues yet needed to kill pathogens in the washing
40 of 40

Other cards in this set

Card 2


why are the long chains folded?


to produce a specific shape.

Card 3


what does the shape depend on?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what can proteins be?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


what proteins control chemical reactions in cells?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Enzymes and digestion resources »