enzymes

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what are protein molecules made of?
long chains of amino acids
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why are the long chains folded?
to produce a specific shape.
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what does the shape depend on?
its function
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what can proteins be?
catalysts;hormones;antibodies
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what proteins control chemical reactions in cells?
enzymes
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what are enzymes?
biological catalysts
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what do they do?
speed up reactions
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what is the area in the shape of the enzyme called?
active site
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what does the active site do to a substrate during a reaction?
it is held in the active site either to be broken down or connected onto another molecule.
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enzymes can:
build large molecules from many smaller ones;break down large molecules into smaller ones; change on emolecule into another one
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when do reactions take place faster?
when its warmer
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describe what the molecules do at higher temperatures.
at higher temps the molecules move around more quickly and so collide with each other more often and with more energy.
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what happend to the enzyme if it gets too hot?
enzyme stops working (denatures)
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why?
active site changes shape
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an enzyme can also denature if...
conditions are too alkaline/acidic
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where are digestive enzymes produced?
specialised cells (glands) and in the lining of the gut
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describe digestion.
the breakdown of large insoluble molecules into smaller soluble molecules
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what is amylase?
a carbohydrase
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where is amylase produced?
salivary glands'small intestine;pancreas
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what does amylase do?
cataluses the digestion of starch into sugars
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where?
mouth and small intestine
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where is protease produced?
stomach; small intestine;pancreas
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what does protease do?
catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amino acids.
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where?
stomach and small intestine
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where is lipase produced?
pancreas and small intestine
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what does it do?
catalysis the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol
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what conditions does protease work best in?
acidic
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which enzymes work best in alkaline conditions?
amylase and lipase
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what does the liver produce?
bile
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where is bile stored?
in the gall bladder
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where is bile squirted into?
the small intestine
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why?
to neutralise the stomach (hydrochloric) acid
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what enzymes do biological detergents contain?
protease and lipase
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what do they do?
digest food stains
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what do proteases do in some baby foods
predigest proteins
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what is isomerase used to convert glucose syrup into?
fructose syrup
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what is special about fructose syrup?
it is much sweeter, so less is needed (less fattening)
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what are carbohydrases used for in foods?
converting starch into sugar
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advantages of using enzymes in industry:
very effective at removing stains;(washing powders)used at lower temperatures - saves energy and reduces costs; used in medicine to control/cure didease
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disadvantages of using enzymes in industry:
allergic reactions to washing powders; enzymes may enter waterways via sewage system; industrial enzymes costly to produce;denature at high temperatues yet needed to kill pathogens in the washing
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Card 2

Front

why are the long chains folded?

Back

to produce a specific shape.

Card 3

Front

what does the shape depend on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what can proteins be?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what proteins control chemical reactions in cells?

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