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  • Created by: AMNAAHAD
  • Created on: 06-05-18 16:50
What is Aerospace engineering?
It is to do with research, design, development, construction, testing, science and technology of aircraft and spacecraft.
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What are the 2 major and iverlapping branches that Aerospace is divided into?
1) Aeronautical engineering- aircraft that operates in the Earth's atmosphere and 2) Astronautical engineering- spacecraft that operates outside the Earth's atmosphere
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What is Communications engineering?
A sector that brings together electrical and computer science to enhance telecommunication systems. It ranges from basic circuit design to mass developments.
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What is telecommunication engineering responsible for?
it is responsible for designing and overseeing the installations of the equiipment and fcailities, such as ccomplex electronic switching systems, copper wire telephone facilities, and fibre optics.
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What does telecoomunication engineering heavily overlaps with?
broadcast engineering
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What is Electrical engineering?
A sector of engineering that deals with the study and application of electricty, electronics and electromagnetism.
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What is Chemical engineering?
A sector of engineering that converts raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms using physical sciences chemistry and physics an/or life sciences biology, microbiology and biochemistry with maths.
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What is Automotive engineering?
A branch that engineers vehicles through designing, manufacturing and operating motorcycles, automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.
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What is Biomedical engineering?
An engineering principle and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine: it combines the design and problem-solving skills of engineering with medical and biolog
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What is Mechanical engineering?
the branch of engineering dealing with the design, construction, and use of machines.
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What is Hydro energy?
Hydroelectricity uses moving water-from a small stream, a large river or ocean waves to generate electricity.
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How does hydro enery work?
As water flows downhill it generates potential energy. Hydropower systems convert this potential energy into kinetic energy using a turbine. As water passes through a turbine, it spins the propeller blades which are connected to a generator,...
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How does hydro energy work?...
...which produces electricity. The faster the it flows, the more energy is produced. HydroElectric Dams: turbines are built at the base of a dam and water is released steadily to generate electricity 24 hours a day with no air or water pollution.
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Give 2 disadvantages of Hydro energy?
: high initial cost of producing the facilities and in dry periods general water usage will need to be controlled around the country to ensure there is enough water to keep producing electricity.
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What is Geothermal energy?
This system uses heat from rocks in the earth’s inner core that turns water into steam.
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How does Geothermal work?
Engineers drill down into the hot regions and the purified steam rises to drive turbines that produce electricity. Where there is no natural ground water, cold water can be pumped down to create steam.
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Give 3 advantages of Geothermal
This form of energy does not produce any pollution so does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. There is no fuel required to run a geothermal power station and once built, the running costs are very low.
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What is Wind energy?
Wind Turbines are a natural and clean source of renewable energy that produce no air or water pollution. The largest wind turbines generate enough electricity to power small towns and villages.High Ground & Offshore
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Disadvantages of Wind energy
they are ugly, noisy and spoil the landscape.
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What is Solar energy?
Solar PhotoVoltaic (Solar PV) cells convert the heat produced from the rays of sun into electricity. The electricity produced can be used to power a homes/businesses and feed into the National Grid.
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Diasadvantages of Solar energy
high cost to install and some people think they are ugly. Need to be SOUTH FACING.
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What is Kaizen?
Kaizen is a manufacturing policy of constantly introducing small changes (For Example: A Production Line) line to improve quality and efficiency. This technique puts the workers at the heart of the decision making.
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2 advantages of kaizen
1)As the ideas come from the workers they are less likely to be much different than existing processes and are therefore easier to implement. 2)Small changes generally do not cost a great deal of money when compared with any major processes
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What the 'Four Rs'?
The Four R's are: Reduce- materials and energy, Reuse- materials and products where applicable, Recycle- materials and products or use recyclable materials, and Recover energy from waste
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What is the Life Cycle Assessment?
The Life Cycle Assessment is the process used to look at the entire life cycle of a product or process.
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What are the stages of the Life Cycle Assessment?
The Stages are: Raw material extraction, material production, transporting of parts, assembly of products, the product use and the product disposal/recycling
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What are Bionics?
Bionics are used to solve/ help with medical problems. An example is the development of artificial pacemakers to correct abnormal heart rhythms.
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What are Blended Wing Bodies?
Blended Wing Bodies are a hybrid design for use on aeroplane wings and other things in the aerospace industry.
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What are Surface Nanotechnologies?
Surface Nanotechnologies are chemical systems that provide coatings to a range of surfaces. Some Examples are: Ceramics-produces hygenic surfaces, Metals- resistance to corrosion, Glass, Plastics.
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What are Hydrogen Fuel Cells?
Hydrogen Fuel Cells versatile energy carrier which can be used to power most devices, They directly convert chemical energy in the hydrogen to electricity with pure water, they operate very quietly and are very efficient , fewer moving parts.
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What are Optical Fibres?
Optical Fiberes are used mainly in telephone networks as an alternative to copper wire, It has the ability to transmit data at higher speeds and the ability to do this with lower rates of transmission errors.
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What is Powder Metallurgy?
This is a highly evolved method of producing consistently shaped components by blending elements or pre-alloyed powders together. The powders are then compacted in a die and heated in a controlled furnace atmosphere to bond particles.
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What does the process of powder mellurgy require?
1) blending 2) mixing 3) pressing 4) sintering
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3 disadvantages of powder mellurgy
1)High production of powder 2)Potential workforce health problems from atmospheric contamination 3)The tools and equipment required are very expensive
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3 advantages of powder mellurgy
It requires relatively low processing temperatures. Final products require little finishing. There is no waste.
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What is Poka-Yoke?
Poka-Yoke is a technique used for avoiding simplistic human error in the workplace. The ideas is to take over all the repetitive processes/tasks performed by humans that rely on memory or vigilance and replace them with a simple system.
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3 advantages of Poka- yoke
1)Eliminating set up errors, therefore improving quality 2)Decreasing set up time and improving production output 3)Increased safety as workers do not get injured through lack of concentration
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What are Metallic Foams?
A metallic foam is made usually of aluminium. A typical metallic foam will have between 75 and 95 per cent of its structure made of pores or spaces that can be connected together or sealed which traps gases inside the metal. Metallic foams are rigid.
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2 advantages of matallic foams
1)Being non-flammable in most cases 2)Allowing the transfer of heat energy very easily.
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2 disadvantages of matallic foams
Their high cost means they are only used with advanced technology Once crushed they do not spring back to shape like polymer foams, therefore they can only be used once.
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typical uses of metallic foams include
1)Energy absorption to improve safety so passengers of a car are less likely to be injured during a collision 2)Taking heat from sensitive electronic components to reduce risk of product failure.
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What are the properties of Shape Memory Polymers?
Shape Memory Polymers, return to their original shape after heating and deformation, lightweight and are resistant to corrosion.
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What are the properties of Piezoelectric actuators?
Piezo electric actuators have an ability to generate electric charge when squeezed or pressed.
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What are the properties of Shape Memory Alloys?
Shape memory alloys, return to their original shape after heating, and deformation, are lightweight and are quite expensive.
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What are the properties of Electrochromic?
Reliable and durable but have slow response. High cost even though there is a narrow colour selection.
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What are the properties of Super Alloys?
Super Alloys have excellent strength at high temperatures, very expensive, resistant to corrosion and is hard wearing.
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What are the properties of Titanium?
Titanium has low density, high strength, is resistant to corrosion, and has low thermal conductivity.
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What are the properties of Ceramics?
Ceramics are very hard but brittle, good wear resistance, corrosion resistant, very stable and chemically inert.
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What are the properties of Tungsten?
Practically indestructible, High cost, Cannot be cut or shaped, Very high melting point (3420) and Resistant to corrosion
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What are the properties of Carbon Fibre?
Carbon Fibre has an amazing strength to weight ratio, easily moulded/shaped, its is resistant to corrosion, rigid/stiff, electrical insulator but quite expensive
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What are the properties of Kevlar?
Kevlar has High tensile strength to low weight ratio, high chemical resistance, extremely tough, very stable and is non - flamable
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What are the properties of GRP?
Good strength to weight ratio. Easily moulded/shaped and is resistant to corrosion. Durable and relatively inexpensive.
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What is Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Machinery?
A CNC machine uses programming information to automatically execute a series of machining operations. For example a CNC milling machine has the same basic functions as a traditional milling machine but it has a computer that controls the spindle.
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What is Mass production?
Mass production is the manufacture of large quantities of standardized products, frequently using assembly line or automation technology. Mass production refers to the production of a large number of similar products efficiently.
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Mass Production- Facts and Figures
Unit Cost - Low, Tools and Equipment - Specialist and Dedicated, Initial Investment - High, Production Efficiency - High, Labour Type - Semi Skilled/ Unskilled, Labour Costs - Low.
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What is Contiuous production?
Continuous production is called a continuous process or a continuous flow process because the materials, either dry bulk or fluids that are being processed are continuously in motion, undergoing chemical reactions or subject to mechanical or heat tre
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Continous Production - Facts and Figures
Unit Cost - Low, Tools and Equipment - Specialist and Dedicated, Initial Investment - High, Production Efficiency - Very High, Labour Type - Unskilled, Labour Costs - Low.
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What is Batch production?
Batch production is a technique used in manufacturing, in which the object in question is created stage by stage over a series of workstations, and different batches of products are made.
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Batch - Facts and Figures.
Unit cost - Medium, Tools and Equipment - Specialised, Initial Investment - Medium, Product Efficiency - Medium/ High, Labour Type - Skilled/SemiSkilled, Labour Costs - Medium.
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What is One Off production?
nvolves producing custom work, such as a one-off product for a specific customer or a small batch of work in quantities usually less than those of mass-market products.
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One Off - Facts and Figures.
Unit Cost - High, Tools and Equipment - General, Initial Investment - Low, Labour Type - Skilled, Labour Costs - High.
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What is Surface Mount Technology?
High Volume industrial PCB manufacture is achieved through Surface Mount Technology. The process involves attaching electrical components to the surface of a conductive board rather than drilling holes for component legs.
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What is the process of Surface Mount Technology (SMT)?
1)Apply solder pads to copper pads 2)Place the components using pick and place robot. 3)Convayer belts are used to transport boards to soldering oven 4) The board is heated to a temperature that melts the solder plastic 5)Components are soldered
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What is the process of Printed Circuit Board (PCB) manafacture?
1) Designing the layout,Usually they are designed using computer software. 2) Producing the artwork,this can be converted from the computer program. 3) PCB Etching, The track and component layout is the converted to the copper covered board.4) Drill
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What is Shearing?
Shearing is a process used to cut straight lines of a range of materials. An upper blade and lower blade are forced past each other with a space between them determined by a required offset. Usually, one of the blades is stationary.
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What is the welding process of Oxy-Acetylene?
Oxy- Acetylene is a gas welding process where a flame is produced using a mixture of oxygen and acetylene. No pressure on the product is required- the heat is there to control the welding of the parts.
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What is the process of Spot Welding?
Spot Welding is a type of electrical resistance welding generally used to join sheet material together. The basic principle uses a transformer with a primary winding and a secondary winding connected to copper electrodes.
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What is Forging?
Forging is a process that involves a metal being heated up and shaped by plastic deformation. It is usually achieved by applying some kind of squeezing force (compression) such as hammer blows using a large power press.
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What is the welding process of MIG?
MIG stands for Metal Inert Gas. MIG is probably the most common industrial welding process. It uses electricity to generate the heat required to weld materials.
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What is casting?
Casting is a process that usally involves pouring or injecting a liquid metal into a mould. The mould contains a cavity that takes the shape of the desired object where the metal is allowed to cool and solidify. The casting is then removed.
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How can accidents be caused using machining processes?
Loose Clothing Snagging on a revolving part, Flying pieces of metal entering the eye, The hand or arm coming into contact with revolving surfaces/parts and Minor burns from hot material surfaces.
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What is Drilling?
Drilling is a process that creates circular holes in a workpiece. The cutting device is called a drill bit. To drill a satisfactory holes in any material the correct type of drill bit must be used.
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What is Milling?
Milling is a process used to shape products by removing excess material to produce a range of simple and complex shapes.A milling machine has a spindle that holds a rotating cutter in place.
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what is sand casting
Metals can be heated until they melt and formed into any shape in a cast before solidifying. The two main methods of casting are sand casting, in which the mould is used only once, and die casting, in which the mould can be used many times.
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Card 2


What are the 2 major and iverlapping branches that Aerospace is divided into?


1) Aeronautical engineering- aircraft that operates in the Earth's atmosphere and 2) Astronautical engineering- spacecraft that operates outside the Earth's atmosphere

Card 3


What is Communications engineering?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is telecommunication engineering responsible for?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does telecoomunication engineering heavily overlaps with?


Preview of the front of card 5
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