Energy & ATP

Pg 28.

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What are examples of different forms of energy?
Light, heat, sound, electrical, magnetic, mechanical, chemical & atomic.
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Can energy be changed from one form into another?
Yes, energy can be changed from one form into another.
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Can energy be created or destroyed?
No, energy cannot be created or destroyed.
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What is energy measured in?
Joules (J)
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Why do organisms need energy? What for?
Metabolism, movement, circulation of blood, active transport, production of substances e.g enzymes&hormones. Maintenance of body temperature. Maintenance, repair and division of cells and organelles within the cells.
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How many phosphate groups does Adenosine triphosphate(ATP) have?
Adenosine triphosphate has three phosphate groups.
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How does ATP store energy?
The bonds between the phosphate groups are unstable and so have a low activation energy, which means they are easily broken. When they do break they release a considerable amount of energy.
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What is used to convert ATP to ADP?
Water
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Is the conversion of ATP to ADP a reversible reaction?
Yes, the conversion of ATP to ADP is a reversible reaction. Therefore energy can be used to add an inorganic phosphate to ADP to re-form ATP.
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What type of reaction is it when you convert ADP into ATP?
Condensation reaction
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What is ATP the source for?
Metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion & activation of molecules.
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ATP is sometimes referred to as "an immediate energy source". Explain why.
ATP releases its energy very rapidly. This energy is released in a single step and is transferred directly to the reaction requiring it.
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What makes ATP a good immediate energy source?
Each ATP molecule releases small amounts of energy that is more manageable. The hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is a single reaction that releases immediate energy.
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What is a better source of immediate energy? ATP? Or Glucose?
ATP
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Why is glucose a worse immediate energy source than ATP?
Each glucose molecule releases more energy hence making it less manageable. The breakdown of glucose is a long series of reactions and therefore the energy release takes longer. Whereas the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is a single reaction.
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Why is ATP needed in metabolic processes?
ATP provides the energy needed to build up macromolecules from their basic units, for example, polysaccharide synthesis from monosaccharides. Polypeptide synthesis from amino acids. DNA/RNA synthesis from nucleotides.
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Why is ATP required in movement?
ATP provides the energy for muscle contraction. In muscle contraction, ATP provides the energy for the filaments of muscle to slide past one another and therefore shorten the overall length of a muscle fibre.
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Why is ATP needed in active transport?
ATP provides the energy to change the shape of carrier proteins in plasma membranes. This allows molecules or ions to be moved against a concentration gradient.
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Why is ATP required in secretion?
ATP is needed to form the lysosomes necessary for the secretion of cell products.
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Why is ATP needed in the activation of molecules?
When a phosphate molecule is transferred from ATP to another molecule it makes it more reative and so lowers the activation energy of that molecule. ATP therefore allows enzyme-catalysed reactions to occure more readily.
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Explain how ATP can make an enzyme-catalysed reaction take place more readily
ATP provides a phosphate that can attach to another molecule, making it more reactive and so lowering its activation energy. As enzymes work by lowering activation energy they have less "work" to do and so function more readily.
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State three roles of ATP in plant cells
Building up macromolecules, active transport, secretions & activation of molecules.
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Card 2

Front

Can energy be changed from one form into another?

Back

Yes, energy can be changed from one form into another.

Card 3

Front

Can energy be created or destroyed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is energy measured in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why do organisms need energy? What for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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