Educational policy

When was Compulsory education introduced?
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What was the main reason why compulsory education was introduced?
Industrialisation because they needed a trained workforce
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prior to compulsory education, who provided education meaning not everyone received one?
church or private tutor
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Why did Compulsory education not do much to change ascribed status?
The type of education received was based on social class
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Why type of education did M/C receive?
Academic curriculum
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What types of education did w/c receive and why?
Basic as they were needed for routine factory work
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In what way was compulsory education meritocratic?
Everyone had access to an education
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However, why did it reproduce inequalities?
Denied W/C opportunities to go onto academic pursuits and change ascribed status
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When was the Tripartite system (Butler Act) produced?
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What was the Tripartite system based on improving?
Equality of oppourtunity
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What did the Butler Ac provide?
Free education up to the age of 15
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What determined what secondary education one would recieve?
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What were the 3 types of school?
Secondary modern, technical (not many existed), Grammar
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Why was the Tripartite system meritocratic?
Everyone had access to an academic curriculum
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What are the 2 reasons why the tripartite system reproduced inequality?
M/C are more likely to pass the exam, girls had to score higher to get into grammar schools (reinforcing that they are the homemaker)
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Why did the M/C score higher on the 11+?
The exam was in the elaborate code so they understood it and they could afford tutors and textbooks
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When were comprehensive schools introduced?
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Who created it and why?
The labour government, to replace the tripartite system and make it more meritocratic
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What happed to pupils now?
attended the same local comp where a range of abilities was accomodated
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In what ways was it meritocratic?
W/C had the same opportunity to pursue the same qualifications as M/C and go to the same school, all students able to go on to further education
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However, how many grammar schools were there still?
164 grammar schools
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Provide 2 other reasons of why the comprehensive system wasn't meritocratic
Catchment areas denying pupils of different schools and setting/streaming within schools
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When was Vocational education created?
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Why did New right politicians introduce Vocational education?
Claimed youth unemployment was due to the education system
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Why did many jobs need that the education system didn't provide the skills for?
Practical and technical skills so prepares them for work
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Provide examples of fields vocational education focuses on
Brick laying
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What type of qualifications would be awarded?
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Why is vocational education meritocratic?
Alternate academic curriculum for students that talents lay elsewhere are able can get a job
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However, provide 2 reasons why vocational education isn't meritocratic
Existed to facilitate W/C to get W/C jobs and stay in ascribed staus, not valued as highly as Alevels
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When were Marketisation policies introduced?
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How does marketization provide a good product of a school
By schools competing with each other
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How are schools run to improve standards
Like a business
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What are the 3 C's of marketization?
Choice, consumer, competition
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Name the 7 marketization policies
League tables, OFSTED inspections, Business sponsorship, Open enrollment, National Curriculum, formula funding, opt-out of lea control
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What policy ranks schools on performance?
League tables
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What policy enables schools to become an academy if they get an outstanding ratings by
Opt-out of Lea Control
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Why was the national curriculum introduced?
Easier to compare if they have the same curriculum and exams
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What is formula funding?
Funding on the amount of students they have
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Why is marketization good?
Better results and better standards, can choose
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However, why are M/C more likely to go to better schools?
M/C are skilled choosers as they can use there cultural capital to get the info on open days, league tables etc
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Why are W/C more likely not to achieve with marketization?
less funding to underperforming schools and most W/C go to these as w/c parents are unskilled choosers
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When were New Labour policies
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What was its aim?
Enable poorest sections of social equality of opportunity
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What provided free daycare for all children in order to remove the final barrier before they even start school?
Sure start
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What is EMA?
To help low-income students attend further education (post 16) by giving them £30 a week to encourage W/C to attend 6th form and get rid of financial barriers
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What raises awareness to W/C kids about uni?
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What is Gifted and talented?
introduced to identify top 5% of students and challenge them
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However, why does Ball (2013) believe the new labour policies were contradictory
They introduced uni fees and left private education untouched
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What are coalition policies?
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What did they want to reduce?
State control
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What did they want to increase?
'excellence, competition and innovation (marketisation)
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What schools did they allow to become academies?
Allowed all existing state schools to become academies with the rating 'outstanding'
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What 3 things that academies can do that other schools can't?
Don't have to follow the curriculum, can set own term times and don't pay VAT
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However, What things do they have to follow?
Rules on admission, special educational needs, exclusions and sit exams
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What is different financially about these schools?
Money is directly given by the government rather than the council
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Who controls and runs academies?
Academy trusts
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Describe free schools
Set up like academies and ran int eh same way but, give power to parents
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What are they influenced by?
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Who usually sets them up?
Set up by parents, teachers, trusts, charities, and religious groups
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Who did they give the power away from?
The state
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However who do they appeal to and why?
M/C because their parents are skilled choosers and interested in education so are more likely to set them up
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Give a stat to support this
7% in a Bristol free school are on FSM
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Who were free school meals made available to and why?
Reception-year2 to remove fiancial barriers
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Who got rid of EMA and gave the money to schools and why?
pupil premium, says it wasn't spend right
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What 2 reasons why the coalition policies weren't meritocratic?
Removed the focus off inequality and replaced it with marketization, increased uni fees to £9,000
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What are the 2 present themes?
Privatisation and globalisation
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What does the consevative government support?
moving state-owned functions to private functions
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What things have the privatized in schools?
catering, the building of schools, providing supply teachers, work experiance
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provide on example
the introduction of vending macheines
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What is lilac Sky?
Runs some schools payed for by the government but is a private company
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What is globalisation
The world being a smaller place due to communication and technology
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What is UK education influenced on?
The best bits of education from around the world
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What British things can be sued across the world?
British exam boards
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What is valued higher than Alevels and can be studied in Britain ?
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Why is it more meritocratic?
More diverse multicultural curriculum
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However, what does privatization make education be seen as rather than a Human Right?
a commodity to be bought and sold
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However, what is the focus point on education now?
making profit
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Policies and social groups
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What policies have helped W/C students
New labor policies with sure start and EMA, tripartite system, the comprehensive system
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However, despite issues what may the problem be and not be solved by policies?
Deep-rooted poverty
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Why might some policies that benefit W/C not benefit some?
Parents May feel shameful to accept help such as EMA
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What policies have helped girls?
The introduction of coursework, league tables as they cream skin girls, national curriculum (able to be taught the same thing as girls)
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What policies have helped boys
rasing boys achievement, plating for success, dads and sons
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However, despite WISE and GIST what do girls remain in?
gender domains
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What girls may not benefit from policies
W/C who have hyper heterosexual identities
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What policies put those of ethnic minorities at a disadvantage?
Foundation stage profiles, marketization policies, league tables, national curriculum(ball ignores black and Asian history
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However, what can this not explain?
Why whites are one of the most underperforming groups and Chinese and Indian pupils are the highest performers
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What policies benefit parents?
Free schools( as they can create their own), open enrollment (more choice), league tables, OFSTED inspections
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However, who benefits the most from these policies?
M/C parents as they are skilled choosers and have cultural capital
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What was the main reason why compulsory education was introduced?


Industrialisation because they needed a trained workforce

Card 3


prior to compulsory education, who provided education meaning not everyone received one?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why did Compulsory education not do much to change ascribed status?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why type of education did M/C receive?


Preview of the front of card 5
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