Education

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What is informal education?
Society educates children in home or through normal daily routines
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What is formal education?
Societies have well developed education systems with professional teachers employed
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Why did Durkheim stress the importance of education as an agent of socialisation?
Schools ensure social stability and social cohesion so that 'order' prevails
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What is vocationalism?
Link between skills developed in education and employment
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Why did Durkheim say that schools ensure the skilling of young people?
So they can fill their economic part in society
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What did Althusser suggest schools form part of?
An 'ideological state apparatus' for teaching the ideas of the ruling class (children are taught to obey teachers like they will have to obey employers later on)
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Why did Durkheim favour strict discipline in schools?
Rule-breakers affect the whole social group & discipline teaches young people to act in the best interest of the group
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Why do Functionalists say working-class students fail?
Due to the meritocratic nature of school
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What do Marxists say is the reason behind working class students failing?
Reinforces ruling class power and is biased against working classes and oppresses them
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What did Smith and Noble (1995) say about material deprivation?
Parents cannot afford to educational resources for their children to succeed
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What did Douglas say about cultural deprivation?
Parents don't do simple things like read to their children
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What did Bourdieu say about cultural capital?
Middle class parents use their knowledge in order to persuade and get the most out of school systems
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What did Bowles and Gintis say about cultural reproductive theory?
Schools pass on values of capitalist society therefore socialising working classes to be 'workers' in low level jobs
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What did Ball, Goodacre and Becker say about labelling theories?
Schools act to label students on behaviour and students then 'play up' to that label
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What do Functionalists say about gender attainment?
Linked to male and female social roles in society and education is merely a reflection of society
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What do Interactionists say about gender attainment?
Teachers and pupils share ideas about gender roles and as a result gender patterns are reproduced in the formal and hidden curriculum
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What do Feminists say about gender attainment?
'Patriarchy' extended into schools from wider society and girls systematically missed out in their education until very recently
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What do Post-Modernists say about gender attainment?
Gender is a choice in education processes and the way females are pressured into identifying with their gender is an aggressive form of social control
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What did Sue Sharpe (1976) say about gender attainment?
Gender differences at school reflect society where gender identity is gained
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What did Clarricoates say about gender attainment?
Social class is a strong factor in subject choices- middle class girls were more likely to choose male dominated subjects
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What did Willis (1977) say about gender attainment?
Some boys reject the values of mainstream education and form anti-social sub-cultures (Hegemonic masculinity)
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What did Francis (2000) say about gender attainment?
Males feel threatened by success at school and work as females start to move into those areas
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What do Functionalists say about ethnic attainment?
Some ethnic minorities are 'predisposed' to fail and they try to offer cultural and genetic reasons for their failings
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What do Interactionists say about ethnic attainment?
The labelling that stems from teacher racism and institutional racism leads to under-attainment in ethnic minorities
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What did Strand (1999) say about primary and secondary schools in London?
Both black and white children from disadvantaged backgrounds failed to make expected progress
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How did Chua describe Chinese parents?
'Tiger parents' who cannot accept failure
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What did the Swan Report (1985) recommend schools do?
Promote multi-cultural Britain as many of the schools investigated were institutionally racist
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What did Wright (1992) say about racist views?
Even if teachers oppose racist views they still had stereotype viewpoints of ethnic children and saw them as problematic
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What did Goodman and Gregg suggest about material deprivation?
In homes with little reading matter or ICT there is weak learning
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What did the Avon Longitudinal Study (2011) show a link between?
A diet high in fat and reduced intelligence in children
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What did Feinstein suggest about children's educational attainment?
Their attainment at 26 years old could be predicted by looking at their families background at 22 months
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What did the Joseph Rowntree Foundation say about aspirations?
It isn't aspiration but the knowledge of routes through education and employment that was the key factor- more likely to be missing in poor families
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What do Functionalists say about ambitions of children?
The poor fail due to their own specific cultural values and lack of ambition
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What did Rose et al (1999) say about failing children and governments?
Governments can ignore issues of funding, social deprivation and material deprivation and material deprivation by identifying working class failings
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What did Becker (1971) say about factors that impact success in school?
Teachers make judgements on the basis of social class and appearance favoured middle class children
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What did Ball (1981) say about factors that impact success in schools?
Pupil's poor behaviour, rather than ability, was placing children into lower ability streams in comprehensive schools
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Card 2

Front

What is formal education?

Back

Societies have well developed education systems with professional teachers employed

Card 3

Front

Why did Durkheim stress the importance of education as an agent of socialisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is vocationalism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why did Durkheim say that schools ensure the skilling of young people?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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